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MOVABLE


606


MOXOS


important is doubtless the united work of clergy and laity in building up llie eolloge, controlling its disci- pline, and conducting its courses. Scarcely less eflica- cious have been the relations between clerical and lay students which, continued beyond the years at col- lege, have residtcd in hearty cooperation for the high- est civic, moral, and religious purpo.scs, an<l have bound .-ill the (iliimiii in loyal devotion to the vener- able institution which gave thetn their early training. Tliis harmonious spirit founil its latest expression at the dedication of the new college church on 12 Oct., 1910. which called together former graduates, both lay and clerical, from all parts of the United States (see "The Mountaineer", Nov., 1910).

Bailey, Memoirs of liinfiop Brutf (New Yurk, 1.SG5) : Jubilee of Ml. SI. Maru's, IS.iS: Hekberm.vnn in U. S. Colli. Hist. Soc. l/i.iloriral Sluilir.': ami Rmmis, I (Now York, 1900); The Story of Iht .M„ujiluiri (Mt. St. Mary's, 1910).

Ernest L.\garde. Movable Feast. See Feasts, Ecclesiastical.

Movers, Franz Karl, exegete and Orientalist, b. at Koesfeld, Westphalia, 17 July, 1806; d. at Breslau. 28 Sept., 1856. He attended the gymnasium of his native town, and from 1822 to 1825 the gym- nasium at Miinster. The next four years he studied at the academy of Miinster, taking up philosophy, theolog)% and especially Oriental languages under Laurenz Reinke. In the autumn of 1829 he was or- dained priest at Paderborn, and then continued his Oriental studies for a short time at the University of Bonn. After that he remained as tutor for several years with Baron von Geyr at Rath, near Deutz. In 1833 he became pastor at Berkuin, mar Bonn, in 1839 extraordinarj' professor of t)l(l-Test anient exegesis at the University of Breslau, and in 1842 ordinary pro- fessor at the same university.

In the field of exegesis Movers published the fol- lowing works: "Kritische Untersuchungen iiber die biblische Chronik, ein Beitrag zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament" (Bonn, 1834); "De utriusque recensionis Vatieiniorum Jeremiae, Grajce Alexandrina; et Hebraica; masorethicee, indole et origine Com- mentatio critica" (Hamburg, 1837); "Loci quidam historia; canonis Veteris Testamenti illustrati, Com- mentatio critica" (Breslau, 1842); and various essays which appeared in theological magazines, especially in "Zeitschrift fiir Philosophic und katholische Theologie", published at Bonn. The first edition of the "Kirchenlexicon" contains a number of arti- cles by him.

Movers showed great scholarship as an Orientalist and performed large and lasting services by his studies of the ancient Phoenicians. His chief work, "Die Phonizier", though never completed, is still an important contribution to the subject. It appeared in parts under separate titles, as follows: Vol. I, "Untersuchungen iiber die Religion und die Gotthei- ten der Phonizier, mit Riicksicht auf die verwandten Culte der Carthager, Syrer, Babylonier, Assyrer, der Hebriier und der Aegypter" (Bonn, 1841); vol. II, "Das phonizische Alterthum" in three parts, part I, "PolitischeGeschichte und Staatsverfas.sung" (Berlin, 1849); part II, "Geschiehte der Colonien" (Ber- lin, 1850); part III, first half, "Handel und Schiff- fahrt" (Berlin, 1856). Movers gave a shorter com- pendium of the results of his researches in his article "Phonizien" in "Allgemeine Encyklopadie der Wis- eenschaften und Kimste" (1848), section III, part XXIV, pp. 319-443. In addition to briefer essays appearing in magazines. Movers published "Phoni- zische Texte erklart " (Bre.slau, 1845 and 1847), part I, "Die punischen Texte im Pa^nulus des Plautus kriti.sch gcwilrdigt und erklart"; part II, "Das (Jpferwesen der Carthager, Commentar zur Opfer- tafcl von Marseille". Another work to be mentioned is " Denk.schrift iiber den Zustand der katholisch- theologischen Facultat an der Universitiit zu Breslau


seit der Vereinigung der Breslauer und Frankfurter

Univcr.-il.il lii- iiiif dir Gcgenwart " (Leipzig, 184.')).

R,,„Ni> \ - . !. m l.,l„„ i,n,l ,l,n Silinfirn Miin-

stcrlutKh ■ \h;n^l.T, INIK;), TS.i K(|.-. Hkchi'II in

Allgrm /'. .' '- /;.',/< r. , .\.\ I I, 1 1 7 sr,. ; \V KllNKH. (.V-

schichlr ,l.r l,alh„U..rl,ni rtirotngic (Munich. ISliC), .'■)44-46; Werner, iieschichte der apotogetischen und polemiscften Litera- tur (Schaflhnuson, 1S67), V. 442-52.

Friedrich Lauciieht.

Mozos Indians (Moyos Indians). — According to one authority, they are named from Musu, their Qui- chuaname; according to others, from the Moxos word, mtiha, erroneously thought l)y the Spaniards to be the tribal name. This collect i\'c designation is (hat of a group of tribes famous in the mission annals of iSoutli America, originally ranging through the forests and prairies of the upper Mamore, extending east and west from the Guapore (Itenes) to the Beni, and cen- tring in the present Province of Mojos, Department of Beni, Bolivia. They numbered altogether at least 50,000 souls, in perhaps a hundred small tribes or sub- tribes, speaking at least thirteen distinct languages, each with dialects, viz., Moxo (spoken with dialectic variation by the Moxos proper, Baure, Ticomeri, and several small tribes), Paicone, Mopeciana, Icabicici, Mapiena, Movima, Cayubaba, Itonama, Sapibocona, Cheriba, Rocotona, Mure, Canichana. Of these, the Moxos and Paicone, with all their dialects, belong to the widespread Arawakan stock, which includes also the Maipure (q. v.) of the Orinoco; the Sapibocona belong to the Tacanan stock of Beni river; the Mure are an offshoot from the Mura of the great Tupian stock of eastern and central Brazil; the Movima, Cayubaba, Itonama, Canichana, and Rocotona (Ocorona) repre- sent each a distinct stock; while the others remain un- classified. Besides all these, there were gathered in by the Jesuits some immigrant Chiquito, Siriono, and Chiriguano, each of different language, from the southern Bolivian missions. Of them all, the Moxos proper were the most important.

The mode of life of the Moxos, in their primitive condition, was determined by their peculiar environ- ment. During the rainy season, lasting four months, nearly the whole country is inundated, excepting cer- tain elevated places, where the scattered bands made their temporary villages. As the w-aters retreat the hot sun generates pestilence in the low grounds along the rivers, while the prevailing oppressive heat is varied by spells of piercingly cold winds from the mountains which prevent the ripening of corn. The natives therefore were generally without agriculture, but subsisted chiefly upon fish and roots during the greater part of the year, and upon the wild game of the mountains when driven from the low grounds by the floods. They were thus compelled to a wandering habit, at the same time tliat they were skilful fishers and river men. The constant shifting also brought the bands into collision, so that each tribe was con- stantly making war on its neighbours.

Their houses were low huts, occupied each by a sin- gle family, instead of being communal as in so many tribes. The larger villages had also well-built "town- houses" for the celebration of tribal functions. They slept upon mats upon the ground or in hammocks, with a smouldering fire close at hand to drive away the swarms of mosquitoes and other insects. They ate when they could find food, without regard to time, feasting equally upon putrid fish taken from stagnant pools, and upon human flesh of prisoners taken in war, for all or nearly all the tribes were cannibal. Of game, the monkey was their favourite food. They used dogs in hunting. They were greatly addicted to drunk- enness, brought about by a fermented liquor of their own manufacture, and their frequent dance festivals always ended in general intoxication, frequently with bloody encounters in revenge for old injuries. Not- withstanding the generally rude culture, the Moxos proper and Baure excelled in hammock-weaving,