station, either clerical or lay, that is spared from his castigation.
The appearance of Luther diverted Murner's satire into a new course. Rrpardinp; the Wittenberg monk at first as a well-intentidiu-d ally in tlii' battle against the evils afflicting tlir C'luirch, Murncr addressed to him in 1520 an ajipcal entillod "Christlirhe mid brii- derliche Erniahnung an den Iiochgclehrtcn Dootor Martin Luther", which was fiillowed by other pam- phlets refuting and warning him and lioset'cliing him to abandon his ruinous undertaking. In his "Xeues Lied voni Untergang des christlichen Glaubens" (1521), Murner gives feeling expression to his sorrow over the destructive tendencies of the religious innovation. But, when the sole effect of his attempts at concilia- tion was to bring upon him a shower of lies and calum- nies, Murner dealt Luther a crushing blow in his work, "Von dcm grossen Lutherischen Narren wie ihn Doc- tor Murncr beschworen hat". Here Murner ri.ses to heights of satire elsewhere unattained during this whole epoch. All the reformatory endeavours are embodied in the "Great Fool", and the newly- founded church is treated allcgorically as Luther's daughter Adclheid, who "has a shocking scald-head." Murncr wrote many other satires against the reform- ers, but none which in energy and wit equals this work. This work, so full of fight and honest zeal for the old Faith, was subjected to much calumny and derision during his lifetime, but was never vanquished in controversy. Later generations did him justice. Lessing intended to write a "defence" of Murner, and literary historiographers (especially Kurtz, Vilmar, and Godeke) have recognized his great importance in the history of literature. Critics have pointed out in his works a peculiar and original metrical and rhyth- mical system, which distinguished him from all poets of his time. His writings show that he possessed in a conspicuous degree the culture of his age. No doubt is entertained to-day of the purity of his intentions and the probity of his character.
GnDEKE, GrundHss (2nd ed., 18S4-1904), II, 215-20, mentions ali Murner's (59) works. Recently edited are: Schelmenzunft by Matthias; Gauchmatt by Uhl; Narrenbeschwdrung by Spanier, Consult Popp. Die Metrik u. Rhylhmik M.'s (1898); Ott, Ueber M:s VerhaltniszuGeiler (.Allemania, 23). Murner is, of course, not forgotten in the numerous Protestant writings on the Refor- mation, which generally criticize him severely. Among recent Catholic writings of Janssen-Pastor, Gesch, des deutschen Volkes, VI (15th ed., 1901); Salzer, Illustrierte Gesch. der deulschen Lit. (in course of pubUcation), pp. 520-24.
Muro-Lucano, Diocese of (Muranensis), in the province of Potenza, in Basilicata, southern Italy. The town is situated on the site of the ancient Numistri, at the foot of the Apennines, the scene of a battle be- tween Hannibal and Marcellus in the second Punic war. The town has a beautiful cathedral; and it was in its castle that Queen Joan of Naples was killed by order of her adopted son Carlo of Durazzo. The first Bishop of Muro of whom there is mention was Leo (1049). Its bishop Antonio (1376) became a partisan of the antipope Clement VII; he was therefore driven by Carlo of Durazzo to seek refuge at Polsino, where- upon Clement VII suppressed the Diocese of Muro. In 1418, however, Guiduccio de Porta was appointed to this see; he was a virtuous man, and learned in civil, as well as in canon law; among his successors were Flavio Orsini (1.560), who became a cardinal; the poet Gian Carlo Coppola (1643), who later became Bishop of Gallipoli, his native town; Alfon.so Pacello (1674), founder of a congregation of priests for the care of the sick of the diocese. The see is suffragan of Conza; it has 12 parishes, with 40,280 inhabitants, 100 secular priests, 2 religious houses of women, and an educa- tional establishment for girls.
CAPPELLE-m, Le Chiese U'llalia, XX (Venice, 1857).
U. Benigni. Murray, Daniel, Archbishop of Dublin, b. 1768, at Sheepwalk, near Arklow, Ireland; d. 1852 at Dub-
lin. He was educated at Dr. Betagh's school in Dublin and at Salamanca and ordained priest in 1700. After some years as curate in Dublin he was transferred to Arklow, and was there in ITllS when the rebellion broke out. The soldiers shot t he parish priest in bed, and Murray, to escape a similar fate, lied to the city, where for several years after he ministered as curate. In ISOO at the request of Archbishop 'IVoy he was ap- ])ointed coadjutor-bishop, and in lS'33, on Dr. Troy's death, he became Archbishop of Diil)lin. While co- adjutor he had filled for one year the position of presi- dent of Maynooth College. Dr. Murray was an un- compromising opponent of the "veto" and a strong supporter of the Catholic Association. On other questions he was less advanced, and was in such fa- vour at Dublin Castle that he was once offered a seat on the Privy Council, which he declined. He sup- ported Stanley's National Education scheme and was among the first Education Commissioners; he also wished to tolerate the Queen's Colleges, in opposition to the views of Archbishop MacHale. He had no hesitation, however, in accei)ting the adverse decision of Rome, and was present at the Synod of Thurles where the Queen's Colleges were formally condemned. He was a charitable, kindly man, respected even by his opponents.
D'Alton, ATchbishops of Dublin (Dublin, 1838); Healy, Cen- tenary History of Maynooth College (Dublin, 1895) ; Meagher. Life of Archbishop Murray (Dublin, 1853); Fitzpatrick, Life of Dr. Doyle (Dublin, 1880) ; O'Reilly, Life of Archbishop MacHale (New York, 1890). g. A. D'AltON.
Murray, Jambs D. See Cooktown, Vicariate Apostolic of.
Murray, Patrick, theologian, b. in Clones, County Monaghan, Ireland, 18 November, 181 1; d. 15 Nov., 1882, in Maynooth College. He received his early education in his native town of Clones, entered May- nooth College 25 August, 1829, the year of Cath- olic emancipation, among the first class of emanci- pated entrants, went through the ordinary course with great distinction and was elected a Dunboyne, or sen- ior student in June, 1835. Towards the end of the Dunboyne course he accepted a curacy in Francis Street, Dublin, where in a short time he acquired the reputation of a zealous worker and an eloquent preacher. He was appointed professor of English and French in Maynooth, on 7 Sept., 1838, after the usual concursus, or examination, and after three years in this position he was appointed professor of theology, after another brilliant concursus, on 27 August, 1841. The remainder of his life he devoted mainly to theo- logical science. In 1879 he was appointed prefect of the Dunboyne Establishment, which position he re- tained until his death in 1882. His principal works are: "Essays, Chiefly Theological" (4 vols., Dublin, 1850-53); "De Ecclesia Christi" (3 vols., Dublin, 1860-62-66); " De Ecclesia Christi", compendium (Dubhn, 1874); "De Gratia" (Dubhn, 1877); "De Veneratione et Invocatione Sanctorum", etc.; "De Impedimentis Matrimoni Dirimentibus" (Dublin, 1881); "Prose and Verse" (Dublin, 1807); "Lectures (on Moore's poetry) before Cork Young Men's So- ciety" (Cork, 1856).
Dr. Murray was a man of high intellectual power, of big projects, and of great activity and perseverance. He would certainly have risen to great eminence in the world of literature, had he remained professor of Eng- lish, as he was possessed of literary and poetic gifts of a high order. But he chose the dom;iin of theology. He wrote for the Dublin Review and for magazines. In 18.50 he announced his intention of publishing a series of volumes on subjects chiefly theological, to supply the Catholic laity with exact and reliable in- formation on the debated religious questions of the day. He published four volumes under the title: "Essays, Chiefly Theological". But though he in- tended at the beginning to extend the work to seven or