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MATINS


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MATINS


wns unfriendly to Gregory, was preparinR an ambush for him, she brought the pope back to Cauossa. Here she drew up a first deed ot gift , in whichshe becjueathi'd her domains and estates from Ceperano to Kadicofani to the Roman Chureli. But as long as she lived she continued to govern and administer them freely and independently. When, soon after, Henry again re- newed the contest with tiregory, Matilda constantly supported the pope with soldiers and money. On her security the monastery of Canossa had its treasure


Monument of Countess M.\tilda Bemini, St. Peter's, Rome

melted down, and sent Gregory seven hundred pounds of silver and nine pounds of gold as a contribution to the war against Henry. The latter withdrew from the Romagna to Lombardy in 1082, and laid waste Matilda's lands in his march through Tuscany. Nevertheless the countess did not desist from her ad- herence to Gregory. She was confirmed in this by her confessor, .\nselra, Bishop of Lucca.

In similar ways she supported the successors of the great pope in the contest for the freedom of the Church. When in 1087, shortly after his coronation, Pope Vic- tor 11 1 was driven from Rome liy the Antipojie Wibert, Matilda advanced to Rome with an army, occupied the Castle of Sant' Angelo and part of the city, and called Victor back. However, at the threats of the emperor the Romans again deserted Victor, so that he was obliged to flee once more. At the wish of Pope Urban II Matilda married in 1089 the young Duke Welf of Bavaria, in order that the most faithful de- fender of the papal chair might thus obtain a powerful ally. In 1090 Henry IV returned to Italy to attack Matilda, whom he had already deprived of her estates in Lorraine. He laid waste many of her possessions, con- quered Mantua, her principal stronghold, by treachery in 1091, as well as several castles. .\lt'hough the vas.sals of the count«.ss hastened to make their peace with the emperor, Matilda again promised fidelity to the cause of the pope, and continued the war, which now took a turn in her favour. Henry's army was de- feated before Canossa. Welf, Duke of Bavaria, and his son of the same name, Matilda's husband, went over to


Henry in 1095, but the countess remained steadfast. \\ hcii the new German king, Henry V, entered Italy in the autumn of 1110, Malilda did homage to him for the imperial fiefs. On his return he .stopped three d.ays with ^latilda in Tuscany, showed her every mark of respect, and made her imperial vice-regent of Liguria. In 1112 she reconfirmeil the donation of her property to the Roman Church that she had made in 1077 (Mon. Germ. Hist.: Legum, IV, i, 653 sqq.). After her death Henry went to Italy in 1116, and took her lands — not merely the imperial fiefs, but also the freeholds. The Roman Church, though, put forward its legitimate claim to the inheritance. A lengthy ilispute now en- sued over the possession of the dominions of Matilda, which was settled by a compromise between Inno- cent II and Lothair III in 1133. The emperor and Duke Henry of Saxony took Matilda's freeholds as fiefs from the pope at a yearly rent of 100 pounds of silver. The duke took the feudal oath to the pope; after his death Matilda's possessions were to be restored wholly to the Roman Church. Afterwards there were again disputes about these lands, and in agreements between the popes and emperors of the twelfth century this matter is often mentioned. In 1213 the Emperor Frederick II reeognizetl the right of the Roman Church to the possessions of Matilda.

DoNizn, Vitn ^fathiIfH}!, ed. Bethmann in Mon. Germ. Hist.: Scripl., XII, .34S-1IW; Vtirr nlia in MuRATOni, Scriptores rer. Ilalicarion. V,:!^" I'lT; I •'■!h ,le lite in Mon. Germ. Hist. I-

III; HuDDT, .1/ ' ' «< o/ Tuscan!/ (London, 1905);

Fiorentini. iV' V /',!a gran contessa di Toscana

(T.ucra, 1642; n.! , I '- , Tosti.!.ii ronlessa Matilde ei

Romnni Pnntrt:. I|.. •,, w"'.^ „.■«■ f.l . Rome, 1886); Hi V! r, r.i r,r,;. / ■ '/ '■; - ' 7 -../,• (Paris, 1859);

I i\ I i;\i \\\. /Jj' /.. , ', V ^//ildevonTuscien

I licTlin. is'.i-'i, II A" ■,, .-'ml ed., Freiburg

lui Br.. 1880); .Mi.ii.i, \..-\ K;.u;.Ai , J ,:i,,!,i.^licr des deutschen Rciches unier Htitirich IV. und Hcuirich V, (6 vols., Leipzig, 1890-1907); Potthast, Bibl. hist. med. wvi, 2nd., II, 1486.

J. P. KiRSCH.

Matins. — I. Name. — The word "Matins" (Lat. Malutinum or Matutinw), comes from Matuta, the Latin name for the Greek goddess LeticoUnv or Leuco- thea, white goddess, or goddess of the morning (Avr- rora): Leutothec grains, Matuta vocaberenostrU.Ovidy, 5-15. Hence Matnline, ^fatutin^l!<, Mafiitinum tempus, or simply Matulinum. The word actually used in the Roman Breviary is .Miitidinum (i. e. tempus); some of the old authors prefer Matutini Matutinorum, or Matutina;. In any ca.se the primitive signification of the word under these different forms was Aurora, sun- rise. It was at first applied to the office of Lauds, which, as a matter of fact, was said at dawn (see L.\UDs), its hturgical synonym being the word Galli- ciniuyn (cock-crow), which also designated this office. The night-office retained its name of Vigils, since, as a rule. Vigils and Matins (Lauds) were combined, the latter serving, to a certain extent, as the closing part of Vigils. The name Matins was then extended to the office of Vigils, Matins taking the name of Lauds, a term which, strictly speaking, only designates the last three psalms of that office, i. e. the " Laudate " psalms. .\t the time when this change of name took place, the custom of saying Vigils at night was observed scarcely anjTvhere but in monasteries, whilst el.sew'here they were said in the morning, so that finally it did not seem a misapplication to give to a night Office a name which, strictly speaking, applied only to the office of day-break. The change, however, was only gradual. St. Benedict (sixth century) in hLs description of the Divine Office, always refers to Vigils as the Night Office, whilst that of day-break he calls Matins, Lauds being the last three psalms of that office (Regula, cap. XI ri-XI V; see L.^vuds) . The Council of Tours in 567 had already applied the title "Matins" to the Night Office: ad Afatutinum scxnntiphonw; Laudes Matnlina; Matutini hymni are also found in various ancient authors as sj'non\-mous with Lauds. (Hefele-Leclercq, "Hist, des Conciles ", V, III, 188, 189.)