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ond pjirt of I ho psalm an inextricahlc confusion from tion of four nails, and the language of certain histori-

which the first was preserved. This exphiiuition of cal writers (none, however, earlier than Gregory of

the textual condition of the poem iinplirs the assump- Tours, "De glor. mart.", vi; for the supposed scrinon

tion that this chapter is not to be attributed to Na- of St. Cyprian, "De passione", is a medieval fabrica-

hum, but is a later addition. So much indeed was tion), favours the same view. On the other hand, in

granted by Hickell, and \"an lloonacker (not to speak the thirteenth century, Western art began to repre-

of non-Catholic scholars) is inclined to a like conccs- sent the feet of the Crucified as placed one over the

sion. On the one hand, the marked contrast between other and pierced with a single nail. This accords

the abstract tone of the composition and the concrete with the language of Nonnus and Socrates and with

character of the other two cliapters, we are told, be- the poem "Christus patiens" attributed to St. Oreg-

speaks a difference of authorsliip; and, on the other ory Nazianzus, which speaks of three nails. More

hand, the artiticiality of tlie acrostic form is oharac- recent archaeological criticism has pointed out not

teristic of a late date. These arguments, however, are not unanswerable. In any case it cannot be denied that the psalm is a most fitting [ireface to t he prophecy.

Little will be found in the teaching of the book of Nahum that is really new and original The originality of Nahum is that his mind is so engrossed by the iniquities and impending fate of Ninive, that he ap- pears to lose sight of the shortcomings of his own people. Tin doom of Xinive wa> nevertheless in itscli for Juda an ohj<'{l- lesson which the im- passioned language of the Prophet was well calculated to impress deeply upon the minds of thought- ful Israelites. De- spite the uncertainty of the text in several places, there is no doubt that the book of Nahum is truly "a

only that the two earliest representations of the cruci- fixion (the Palatine graffito does not here come into ac- count), viz., thecarvcci door of Santa Sabina in Home, and the ivory panel of tlie Hritisli .Museum, show no signs of nails in the feet, but that St. Am- brose ("De obitu Theodosii" in P. L., XVI, 1402) and other early writers distinct- ly imply that there were only two nails (sec Forrerand Miil- ler, "Kreuz u. Kreu- zigung Christi"). I'urther, St. Ambrose informs us that St. Helen had one nail converted into a bridle for Constan- tine's horse (early commentators quote Zach., xiv, 20, in this connexion), and that an imperial diadem was made out of the other nail. Gregory of Tours speaks of a nail being thrown (deponi), or possibly

mjisterpiece " (Kaulen) of literature. The vividnessand dipped into the Adriatic to calm a storm. It is impos-

Cicluresqueness of the Prophet's style have already sible to discuss these problems adequately in brief een i)ointed out ; in his few short, flashing sentences, space, but the information deri\able from the general most graphic word-pictures, apt and forceful figures, archsology of the punishment of crucifixion as known grand, energetic, and pathetic expressions rush in, to the Romans does not in any way contradict the thrust vehemently upon one another, yet leaving the Christian tradition of four nails.

impression of perfect naturalness. Withal the Ian- Very little reliance can be placed upon the authen- guage remains ever pure and classical, with a tinge of ticity of the thirty or more holy nails which are still partiality for alliteration (i, 10; ii, 3, 11) and the use of venerated, or which have been venerated until recent prim and rare idioms; the sentences are perfectly bal- times, in such treasuries as that of Santa Croce in anced; in a word Nahum is a consummate master of Rome, or those of Venice, Aachen, the Escurial, Nu- his art, and ranks among the most accomplished writ- remberg, Prague, etc. Probably the majority began by ers of the Old Testament. professing to be facsimiles which had touched or con-

Vyazx, The Minor Pruphtta, II (London. I860); Davidson, tained filings from some other nail whose claim was

more ancient. Without conscious fraud on the part of anyone, it is very easy for imitations in this way to come in a very brief space of time to be reputed origi- nals. The bridle of Constantine is believed to be identical with a relic of this form which for several centuries has been preserved at Carpentras, but there is another claimant of the same kind at Milan. Sim- ilarly the diadem of Constantine is asserted to be at Monza, and it has long been known as "the iron crown of Lombardy".

RoBAULT DE Fleury, MSmoire sur les instruments de la passion (Paris. 1870), 165-181; Fohreh and MUller, Kreuz u. Kreuii- gung Christi in ihrer Kunstentwicklung (.Strasburg, 1894); Fried- LIEB AND Martin, Archeol. de la passion (Paris, 1897); Kraus, Beitrage zur Irierischen Archaol. (Trier. 1868) ; Fulda, Das Kreuz u, die Kreuzigung (Breslau, 1878) ; Ferris. Le saint mors de Car- pentras (Carpentras, 1874) ; de Combes, The Finding of the Cross, tr. (London, 1907) ; Riant and M^ly, Eiuvice Sacrx Constanlino- politance (Paris, 1877—). HERBERT ThURSTON.

Nahum, llabakkuk and Zephaniah (Cambridge. 1896), 9-44; Smith, The Minor Prophets, II (London, 1898); Driver, Intro- duction to the Literature of the Old Testament (Edinburgh, 1898), 334-.'J7; GicOT, Special Introduction to the Slmly of the Old Testa- ment, II (.New York, 1906), 422-426; Kennedy in Hastings, Diet, of the Bible, s. v.; Fillion in ViGOunocx, Did. de la Bible, 8. v.; Van Hoonacker, Les douze pelits prophites (Paris, 1908), il2-r>2; Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarhcilen, V: Die kleinen Prophelen Hbersetzt mil Noten (Berlin, 1883), 31-33; 155-161; Kleinert, Die Propheten Obadja, Jona, Micha, Nahum, Ilabakuk und Zephanja (Bielefeld, 1803); Miller, Die Propheten in ihrer uraprQnalichcn Form (Vienna, 1896); NoWACK, Die kleinen Propheten abcrselzt und erkUrt (G6ttingen, 1897), 226-46; Billeh- beck and Jekemias, Der Vnlergana Ninei-chs und die Weisagungs- sehnft den .\'ahuma Ton Elkosch in Beilrdge zur Semilisehen Sprach- witsemchafl. III (1898), 87-1,88; Happei.. Das Buch des Proph. Nahums erkldrt (1903); Marti, Dodekapropheton erkUM (TU- bingen,_1904),303-325;STRAU88,AfaAum»!ieJV!noralmmum(Ber lin, 1853) ; Knabenbauer, Commenlarius in Prophetas Minores. II (Paris, 1S«6), 1-50.

Charles L. Souvay.

Nails, Hoi.y. — The question has long been debated whether Christ was crucified with three or with four

Nairn (Nain), the city where Christ raised to life

nails. Thetreatment of the Crucifixion in art during the widow's son (Luke, vii, 11-17). The Midrash the earlier Middle Ages strongly supports the tradi- (Bereshit rabba, 88) gives the significance "agree-