ronsidrring those naiiips as Hebrew, since Hebrew is the Ch;in:uinitp laiiKuage of tlie early inhabitants of Palestine, adopted by the Israelite ronquerors.
In all countries, many names of places have been suRgested by the topography. The Palestinians named certain towns Rama, Ramath, Ramatha, Raniathaim for the .same reason we would name them "Heieht"; they said Gabaa, Oeha, (Jabaon, lus we would say "Hiil"; their Sola (Petra) would be our "ClifT"; what we might style our "Hollow" they called Horen or Horonaim. They had their Lebanon !is we have our "White Mountains"; and where we would .say "Hlackroek", they said Hauran; the names of some of their rivers: Jordan, Cedron, Sichor, resemble our "Rapids", "Dusky", "Blackwatcr". Argob means a lay of rich soil; Horeb or Jabes, dry lands ;.\ccaron, "Bad Lands". "Spring" and "Well ' were then as now a prominent element in compound names of places (hence, Endor, Engaddi, etc. ; Beroth, Bersabee. etc.); to a native of the Holy Land, Ham- math, Hamnian sounded like "Hot Springs" to us. A large proportion of compound names are made up of Hasor (enclosed settlement), Cariath, Ir, Qir (city), Beth (house), and another element the origin of which is not always obvious (Cariath-.Vrbe, IJcthlehem). Sometimes also the locality derived its name from some vegetable product : Abel (meadow), Atad (some kind of Rhanmus), Baca (mulberry-tree), Abel-kera- mim, Bethacarem, Escol, Soree (vine); Dilan (cu- cumber); Ela, Elath, Elim, Eloth, Elon (oak and terebinth); Gamzo (.sycamore); Luz (almond-tree); Mount Olivet; Reminon (pomegranate); Rithma (broom); Samir, Bethsetta (acacia); Bettaffua (apple tree); Thamar (palm-tree).
Places named after animals are not rare in Pales- tine: Acrabim (scorpion); Aialon (stag); Ar.ad (wild ass); Eglon, Eglaim (calf); Ephron, Ophra (gazelle) ; En-gaddi (kid); Etam (hawk); Bethhagia (par- tridge) ; Humta (lizard) ; Lais, Lebaoth (lion) ; Ima- has (snake); Beth-nemra (leopard); Para (cow); Seboim (hyena); Hasar-sual (jackal); Hasar-susa, -susim (horse); Telaim, Bethcar (lamb); Zora (hor- net); etc.
An important and interesting class of topographical names have reference to the religious practices of the early inhabitants of Chanaan. Such cities as Beth- sames, Ensemes, the \arious Hares clearly owed their names to their being given up to sun-worship; hke- wisc such names as Sin, Sinai (Babyl. Sin, i. e., Moon- god), and Jericho, tell us of places consecrated to the cult of the moon. Many were the cities and moun- tains dedicated by the Chanaanites to the various Biuils. Even Babylonian gods possessed shrines in Palestine: the names of Mt. Nebo, Nebo of Moab, Nebo of Juda (Esd., ii, 29), are of themselves very suggestive; Anath, the female companion of Anu, gave her name to Beth-.Anath, Beth-Anoth, Anathoth; Bel was honoured in Ribla (.\r-bela); Lshtar in Astaroth, Astaroth-camaim, Beestera; the name Beth-D:igon needs no comment.
I'inally a certain number of distinctly Hebrew nami's, which either superseded older ones, or were given to localities before unnamed, have a special interest because they took their origin from events enshrined in the memory of the Hebrews. Bersabee recalls the league of Abraham and Abimelech (Gen., xix, 20) ; Escq, the quarrel of the herd.smen of Gerara with those of Isaac (Gen., xxvi, 20); Bethel, the vision of Jacob (Gen., xxviii, 17); likewise the names Abel- Misraim (Gen., i, 11), Mara (Ex., xv, 2.3), Massa, Meriba (Ex., xvii, 7), Thabeera (Num., xi, 3), Horma fXura., xxi, 3), Galgala (Jos., v, 9), Bokim (Judges, ii, .5), Abenezer (I Kings, vi\, 12), Pherez Oza (II Kings, vi, 8), etc., were for the Hebrew people so many rec- ords of the memorable past. And this custom of re- naming places in commemoration of momentous facts persisted until the times of the New Testament, as
we gather from the (Aramaic) name Haceldama (Matt., xxviii, 18: Acts, i, 19) given to the potter's field bought with blood-money.
Cdevne in Encycl. Bibl., a. w. Abi, Ammi: Clay. Jaslrow: Israel, and Ansyr. Proper Names in LiUhcran Church Hrneic, XIV, 190-201; Gray, Hebrew Proper Names (London, ISOR); Idem, Nebo as an Element in Hebrew Proper Names in Exp»sitorj/ Times (Fob., 18n9). 232-34; Idem in Hastinos, DicJ. of the Hibl'r, s. vv. Name and Proper Names; .Iastrow. On Compmintis with Hosheth- Baal in Journ. of Bibl. Lit. (1894). 19 sqq.; Idem, On Compounds with -iiah in Journ. of Bibl. Lit. (1S94), 101-27; Smith, The Reli- gion of the Semites (London, 1907); Idem, Animnf and Plant Names in Journ. of Phil., IX, 7.'>-l(X): HlLLER, Onomasticum Sacrum (Tubingen, 1706); Leusden, Onomasticum Sacrum (Le.vden, 16(34); MiCHAELls, Observat. phil. de nominibus propr. Ebreor. (Halle. 1729); Idem, Nomina qu/edam propria Vet. et Novi Test. (Halle, 1754); Simonis, Onomasticum Vet. Test. (Halle, 1741) : Lagrange. Etudes sur les religions simitiques (Pang, 1903) ; LEsfcTRE in ViGOUROux, Diet, de la Bible, s. v. JVom; Renan, Sur les noms thiophores dans les langues simitiques in Revue des Etudes Juives (1882), 161-77; Grundwald, Die Eigennamen des Alt. Test, in ihrer Bedeutung filr die Kenniniss des hebrdischen Volks- glaubens (Breglau, 1895); Kerber, Die religionsgeschichtliche Bedeutung der hebr. Eigennamen (1897); Lagarde, Bildung der Nomina (Leipzig, 1889); Nestle, Die israelitischen Eigennamen nach ihrer religionsgeschichtlichen Bedeutung (Harlem, 1876).
Charles L. Souvay.
Names of Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy, a religious connri'sation fdiiiidi'il at Longucuil, Que- bec, 8 December, IStl. uiiiirr Ihc jjatronage of Bishop Bourget, of Montreal, for the Christian education of young girls. The mother-house is at Hochelaga, Montreal. The institute was incorporated by Act of the Canadian Parliament, 17 March, 1845. A Decree cum laude was issued by Pius IX, 27 February, 1863, and a further Decree of 4 Si'i)tember, 1877, approved the institute; the constitutions received definite ap- proval 26 June, 1901, and the institute was divided into seven provinces, 11 May, 1894, later increased to nine, 25 August, 1910. Under the direction of Rev. J. Allard three Canadian .aspirants — Miss Eulalie Duro- cher. Miss Henriette Cere, and Miss Melodic Dufresne — were trained according to the institute of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary established by Mgr Eugene de Mazenod of Marseilles. They took simple religious vows at Longucuil, 8 December, 1844, as Sisters Marie- Rose, Marie- .Madeline, and Marie-Agnes. Bishop Bourget g;ive the institute diocesan approval and ap- pointed Mother Marie-Ro.se. gener.al .superior for life. The community at M;irseilles supplied the title of the congregation and, with miKiilieations, the habit and the rule. LTnder Mother M;irie-Ho.se, the congrega- tion developed ra|)i(lly, and :i course of study provid- ing equally for iMigli.sii pupils ;iii(l I' rench was .sketched on lines sufficient ly broad to cover subsequent require- ments. The teaching of boys was not at first contem- plated, but missionary conditions rendering it impera- tive in certain provinces, permission from the Holy See has been temporarily obtained. The postulate lasts six months. At the end of the canonical year novices are sent for six additional months to the dif- ferent houses, where they become practically ac- quainted with the life of the community. After five years, the young religious reconsiders her vocation during a retreat of thirty days. Final vows are per- petual. Young girls desirous of leading a hidden life in the apostolate of education, or possessing little aptitude for instruction, may enter as auxiliary sisters. Their spiritual preparation is similar to that of the choir sisters, and save for minor details in dress, no outward distinctions exist between the two classes. A general superior elected for five years, who may not be chosen for more than two consecutive terms, governs the entire congregation, assisted by four coun- cillors. A general chapter assembles periodically to deliberate upon the major concerns of the institute.
In 1859 Archbishop Blanchet of Oregon City, Ore- gon, secured twelve sisters for his diocese. Several years later, they were invited to Seattle, Washington. To-day these two States form one province, with a novitiate (1871) and provincial headquarters at St. Mary's Academy and College, Portland. This school