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stored this privilege to the bishops of Nancy and Toul. Concerning the insinuations of the Old Catho- Hcs in 1870 apropos of this Brief, see Granderath, "Geschichte des Vatikanischen Konzils", II, 589, and III, 748. St. Sigisbert, III (630-54), King of Aus- trasia, and founder of twelve monasteries, is patron of the City of Nancy.

On 5 Dec., 1572, Gregory XIII signed the Bull for the erection of a university at Pont-ii-Mousson; the faculties of theology and arts were entrusted to the Jesuits; the learned Father Sirmond made his profes- sion there, and in 1581 Queen Mary Stuart established a seminary for twenty-four Scotsmen and Irishmen. St. Peter Fourier was a pupil of this seminary. Car- dinal Mathieu (d. 1908) was for many years parish priest of Pont-a-Mousson. The congregation of Our Lady of Refuge was founded at Nancy for pen- itent women in 1627, by Elizabeth of Ranfaing, known as Sister Mary Elizabeth of the Cross of Jesus. This congregation had numerous houses throughout France. Mattaincourt, the parish of St. Peter Fou- rier, belonged to Toul when the saint established his important foundations in the seventeenth century.

The chief pilgrimage centres are: Notre-Dame de Bon Secours, at Nancy, dating from the fifteenth cen- tury, and for which King Stanislaus built (1738-41) a large sanctuary on the site of the humble chapel erected by King Rene ; Notre-Dame de Sion, at Saxe- Sion, dating from the episcopate of St. Gerard, and whose madonna, broken during the Revolution, was replaced in 1802 by another (miraculous) statue of the Blessed Virgin; and St-Nicolas du Port, in honour of St. Nicholas, Bishop of Myra, patron saint of Lor- raine.

Prior to the enforcement of the Associations Law of 1901, there were in the diocese, Carthusians, Jesuits, Dominicans, Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Redemp- torists, and several orders of teaching brothers, one of which, the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine (founded in 1822 by Dom Frechard, former Benedic- tine of Senones Abbey), had its mother-house ;it Nancy.

Orders of women: the Canonesses Regular of St. Augustine of the Congregation of Notre Dame, .i teaching order founded at Vezelise in 1629, and trans- ferred to Luneville in 18,50; Sisters of St. Charles, :t nursing and teaching order, the foundation of which in 1651 was due to the zeal of two laymen, Joseph and Emmanuel Chauvenal; Sisters of the Christian Doc- trine, called Vatelottes, a nursing and teaching order founded about 1718 by the Duke of Lorraine and Father Jean-Baptiste Vatelot; Sisters of the Holy Childhood of Mary a nursing and teaching order which Canon Claude Daunot took thirty-five years to establish (1820-55) ; Si.sters of the Holy Heart of Mary, a teaching order founded in 1842 by Bishop Manjaud and Countess Clara de Gondrecourt; Daughters of Compassion, a nursing order of Servile tertiaries, es- tablished in 1854 by Abbe Thiriet at St-Firmin.

The religious congregations of the diocese conduct 6 creches, 57 day-nurseries, 2 institutions for sick chil- dren, 1 school for the blind, 1 school for deaf-mutes, 3 boj's' orphanages, 23 girls' orphanages, 12 sewing rooms (industrial), 3 schools for apprentices, 32 hos- pitals or asylums, 17 houses for \isiting nurses, 16 houses of retreat, 1 insane ,is\liiiii. In 1909, the Dio- cese of Nancy had 517,."iiis iiili:iliii:irits, 29 deaneries, 482 succursal parishes, anil ',il \ i>;iiiates.

Gallia Christiana, nova (1785). XIII, 9.')(V-1065. instrumenta, 445- '>50: Martin, Histoire des diochses de Toul, de Nancy et de Saint-Die C3 vols.. Nancy, 1901-0.1) ; Pfister. Histoire de Nancy (3 vols.. 1901-08); Anon.. Histoire de la Congrigation des Sceurs de Chariti de Saint Charles de Nancy (3 vols., Nancy, 1898); Hallays, Nancy (Paris. 1906); Turinaz. Statuis synodaux du diorise de Nancy et de Toul (Nancy, 1902).

Georges Goyau. Nanni, Giovanni. See Annius of Viterbo.

Nantes (Nannetes), Diocese of (Nanceiensis). — This diocese, which comprises the entire depart- ment of Loire Inferieure, was re-established by the Concordat of 1802, and is suffragan of Tours. Ac- cording to late traditions, St. Clarus, first Bishop of Nantes, was a disciple of St. Peter. De la Borderie, however, has shown that the ritual of the Church of Nantes, drawn up by precentor Melius in 1263, ignores the apostolic mission of St. Clarus; that St. Peter's nail in the cathedral of Nantes was not brought thither by St. Clarus, but at a time subsequent to the inva- sions of the Northmen in the tenth century; that St. Felix of Nantes, writing with six other bishops in 567 to St. Radegond, attributes to St. Martin the chief

role m the conversion of the Nantai>5 to Christianity; that the traditions concerning the mission of St. Clarus are later than 1400. Tlie earliest list of the bishops of Nantes (made, according to Duchesne, at the beginning of the tenth century) does not favour the thesis of a bishop of Nantes prior to Constantine. The author of the Passion of the Nantes martyrs, Sts. Donatian and Rogatian, places their death in the reign of Constantius Chlorus, and seems to believe that Rogatian could not be baptized, because the bishop was absent. Duchesne believes that the two saints suffered at an earlier date, and disputes the in- ference of the ancient writer concerning the absence of the bishop. He believes that the first bishop of Nantes, whose date is certain, isDesiderius Hi'i'.',}, correspond- ent of Sulpicius Severus and St. l';iunmis of Nola. Several bishops, it is true, occupied the .see before him, among others St. Clarus and St. Similianus, but their dates are uncertain. Mgr Ducliesne considers as legendary the .St. yEmilianus supposed to have been Bishop of Nantes in Charlemagne's reign and to have fought the Saracens in Burgundy.

Among the noteworthy bishops are: St. Felix (5.50- 83), whose municipal improvements at Nantes were praised in the poems of Fortunatus, and who often mediated between the people of Brittany and the Frankish kings; St. Pacharius (end of seventh cen- tury); St. Gohard (Gohardus), martyred by the Northmen in 843, with the monks of the monastery of