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traits brought him a pension of 1000 livres and the appointment of Royal Engraver (1658), together with an atelier in the Gobelins. Two years later Louis XIV issued an edict, mainly inspired by Nan- teuil, lifting engraving out of the realm of mechanical arts and giving to engravers all the privileges of other artists.

Nanteuil's bold, broad, and vigorous pastel or crayon life-size sketches have nearly all disappeared, for he used them only as studies for his engravings; and his rich, yet delicate and silvery tones, his splen- did modelling of the face, his suggestion of colour throughout the plate and unaffected justness of the likeness are largely due to his following the fresh and crisp sketch in chalks. He engraved portraits of many of the princes of Europe and of all the celebrated men of France in Louis XIV's time. Of the Grand Monarque alone he made nineteen portraits at vari- ous periods of his life. He was rich, affable, and very generous, and would often send back payments for great plates when he found the sitters were poor. He was received by the nobility and men of letters, and himself wrote poetry and recited pleasingly. His verses are often to be found beneath his portraits. He was the pioneer of modern engra\'ing, and much of his work equals and strongly resembles the best of re- cent times. He was a rapid and prolific worker, many of his 243 plates being life-size. Fairthorne, a great English engraver, learned much from him, and Edelinck was his friend and follower. His master- pieces are: J. B. van Steenberghen (after Duchatel), called "L'Advocat de Hollande" (1668); M. de Pom- ponne (after Le Brun); Jean Loret; Duchesse de Ne- mours; and Marshal Turenne. A few of his chalk originals are in the Louvre and all of his 243 plates are in the Bibliotheque Richelieu.

Richard, Magazin Pittoresque (Paris. 1859); DuMESNIL, Le

Peintre Graveur Frarifaia, IV- (Paris ); Delaborde, La

Gravure (Paris, g. d.).

Leigh Hunt. Naphtali. See Nephtali.

Naples, the capital of a province in Campania, southern Italy, and formerly capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies; it is situated on the northern side of the bay of Naples, on the Capodimonte, the Vo- mero, and the Posilipo hUls, in one of the most en- chanting spots upon the earth. The most populous town in Italy, its suburbs stretch along the bay, as far as Torre Annunziata. Naples is a very industrial town, and its fisheries, navigation, and commerce are very active; commercially, it is the most important centre of Italy, after Genoa, and contains an arsenal of the Royal Navy. In its neighbourhood, the vine and all species of esculent plants are cultivated ; and fruits and vegetables are exported in great quantities. The silk industry is very important. Naples has fre- quently been damaged by the eruptions of the neigh- bouring Mt. Vesuvius; the most memorable of these occurred in the year 72 of the Christian era, the first eruption of Vesuvius after several centuries of inactiv- ity; in 205, 407, 512, 982, and 1139, the eruptions were less violent; until 1631, the volcano gave no signs of activity, and was covered with vegetation; there were more or less violent eruptions, however, in 1680, 1694, 1707, 1723, 1794, 1804, 1805, 1822, 1828, 1839, 1850, and 1872; the eruption of 1904 was one of the most violent of all, and caused the ruin of Ottaiano and of San Giuseppe.

Buildings. — Sacred. — The cathedral or church of Saint Januarius, begun by order of Charles of Anjou in 1272, on the site of the ancient Stefania cathedral of the eighth century, and completed in 1341, the work of Nicold Pisano, Maglione, and Masuccio, is in Gothic style with three naves; the fagade, modified by the restoration of 1788, has been brought again to its original style; its principal door is a work of Babuccio Piferno (1407), while its chapel of St. Restituta is said

to date from the time of Constantine. The fourteen pilasters are adorned with busts of famous archbishops of Naples. In the crypt, which was built by Malvito by order of Archbishop Carafa, is venerated the body of St. Januarius, taken there from Montevergine in 1479. Of the lateral chapels, that of the Treasure is the most notable; it is there that the head of St. Januarius and the ampullae that contain the martyr's blood are preserved (see Januarius, St.). The ca- thedral contains the superb sepulchres of Innocent IV and of Cardinal Minutoli, the second, a work of Girolamo d'Auria; also, valuable thirteenth-century frescos of Santafede, Vincenzo Forti, Luca Giordano, and others, and paintings by John of Nola, Franco, Perugino, and Domenichino. Among other churches are the church of St. Augustine of the Mint, which has a pulpit of the fifteenth century, sculptures by Vincent d'Angelo and Jian da Nola, and a painting by Diana (the Communion of St. Augustine); the church of the Holy Apostles, restored in 1608 by the labour of famous artists, among whom were Giordano, Marco da Siena, Bonomini, and Dolci, the tabernacle of the high altar being the work of Caugiano ; the church of S. Domenico Maggiore, dating from 1255, is rich in paintings, mosaics, and sepulchres, and in the ancient monastery connected with this church is the cell of St. Thomas Aquinas; the church of Donna Regina, built by Mary of Hungary, in 1300, and renewed by the Theatine Guarino in 1670, contains valuable paintings and frescos, and also, the tomb of the foimdress.

The church of St. Philip Neri, in Ijaroque style, by Dionisio di Bartolomeo (1592), contains statues by Sammartino, and both the church and the sacristy have very valuable paintings by Luke Giordano, Guerra, Guido Reni, Caravaggio, Spagnoletto, Dome- nichino, and others; the church of St. Francis of Paul (1817), an imitation of the Pantheon, with tv/o wings that have porticos, is adorned with paintings of the nineteenth century. The church of San Giacomo of the Spaniards (1540) is decorated with works of art; St. John Carbonara (1343) contains the mausoleums of King Ladislaus and of the constable Sergianni Carac- ciolo, and paintings by famous artists. The church of St. Barbara, a work of Giuliano di Maiano, has a beau- tiful bas-relief of the Madonna with angels over the principal entrance, and another fine bas-relief within the edifice; adjacent to the church is the cell inhabited by St. Francis of Paula. The church of St. Clare (1310), restored in 1752, contains the mausoleums of Robert the Wise and of other personages, and also, paintings by Lanfranco, Giotto, and other artists; the pulpit is a graceful work of art. The church of Santa Maria del Carmine, built in the thirteenth century, and restored in 1769, contains the tomb of Conradin executed by Schoepf in 1874 by order of King Louis of Bavaria. The church of St. Mary of Piedigrotta, where each year, about September, popular feasts are celebrated; the church of St. Anna of the Lombards of Mt. Ohvet (1411) contains many works of art, and also the tomb of the architect Charles Fontana; the church of St. Peter ad aram, so called because it con- tains an altar upon which .St. Peter is said to have celebrated Mass. The church of Santa Maria dd Parto, built by the poet Sannazaro, contains the mau- soleum of its founder, a work of Fra Giovanni Montor- soli; the church of S. Paolo Maggiore, built on the ruins of the ancient temple of Castor and Pollux, after the plans of the Theatin Grimaldi; the church of SS. Severinus and Sosius, which is very ancient, was re- stored in 1490 and in 1609. While painting the vault of this temple, the artist Correnzio, falling from the scaffolding, was killed and he lies buried at the place of his fall; other artists have also adorned this church with fine works. The church of the Most Holy Trinity, or the New Gesd, an ancient palace converted into a church by the Jesuit Provedo (1584). Mention should be made, however, of the catacombs, near the