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NAPOLEON


687


NAPOLEON


iux Sergius, and died on a journey to Rome (872). Anastasius II, a cousin of Sergius, having become bishop, captured the dux, blinded him, and made him- self Duke of Naples, and by favouring the Saracens, incurred excommunication by John VIII. The first Neapohtan prelate to bear the title of archbishop was Sergius (990-1005), and hi.s successors continued to be consecrated at Rome, even after Leo the Isaurian had made all of Byzantine Italy dependent on the Patri- arch of Constantinople ; their clergy was in part Latin, and in part Greek. Under Archbishop .A.nselm (1192- 1215), there was incorporated into the Diocese of Naples that of Cuma, where, in the time of Diocletian, Maxentius was bishop, and the deacon Maximus was martyred. Another bishop of Cuma was the Misenus who went in 483, with Vitalis and Felix, on a pontifical mission to Constantinople, where he betrayed the pope's interests. This city was destroyed by the Neapolitans in 1207, but many of its ruins are still in existence.

Other archbishops of Naples are Cardinal Henry Minutolo (1389), a hberal restorer of churches; Ni- colo de Diano (1418), zealous for the maintenance of discipline and of good morals; between 1458 and 1575, seven archbishops of the family of CarafTa succeeded each other, with only one interruption; among them was Giovanni Pietro (1549-1555), who became Pope Paul IV. This series was followed in 1576 by Blessed Paul Burali, a cardinal, and one of the associates of St. Cajetan of Tiene who died at Naples in 1547 ; Cardi- nal Annibale da Capua (1.578), who, like his prede- cessor, was a reformer; Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo (1596) ; Cardinals Ottavio Acquaviva (1604) and Fran- cesco Boncompagni (1626) were distinguished, the one for his benevolence, and the other for his charity on the occasion of the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 1631. Cardinal Antonio Pignatelli (1686) became Pope Innocent XII ; during the incumbency of Giuseppe Spinelli (1734) were found the marble tables contain- ing the ancient calendar of the Neapolitan Church, illus- trated by Mazzocchi; Cardinal Giuseppe M. Capece- Zurlo (1782) was confined by the republicans in the monastery of Montevergine, where he died in 1801. Cardinal Ludovico Ruffo Scilla (1802-32) fled in 1806 to Rome, was taken to France with Pius VII in 1809, and returned with the pope to Rome; he did much for the Church, but was unfortunate under the restor:! tion of the Bourbons at Naples. In 1818, a new concordat gave to the hierarchy of the kingdom a new organiza- tion. Cardinal Filippo Giudice Caracciolo (1833-54) restored the cathedral to its ancient architectural style; Cardinal Sisto Riario Sforza (1854-77) pro- tested against the annexation of Naples to the King- dom of Italy, and therefore, remained in exile at Civitavecchia, until 1866.

The suffragan sees of Naples are those of Acerra, Ischia, Nola, and Pozzuoli; the archdiocese has 95 parishes, with 600,600 inhabitants; 32 religious houses of men, 27 congregations of nuns; 7 educational estab- lishments for boys, and 15 for girls; one Catholic daily paper, and 14 weekly and monthly publications.

Cappelletti. Le Chiese d' Italia, vol. XIX; St. d'Aloe, Storia delln Chiesa di Napoli (5 vols., Naples, 1861); Archivio slorico per le provincie napoletane (Naples, 1878); FlESCHI, Storia delta caritd napolitana (4 vols., Naples, 1875-79): Norway, Naples, Past and Present (London, 1901); Romano, La cittd e il Commune di Napoli dal 1100 in poi (Naples, 1909) ; Di Glacomo, Napoli in Italia artis- tica, n. 32 (Bergamo, 1907).

U. Benign I.

Napoleon I (Bonaparte), Emperor of the French, second son of Charles-Marie Bonaparte and Maria- LEEtitiaRamolino, b. at Ajaccio, in Corsica, 15 August, 1769; d. on the Island of St. Helena, 5 May, 1821. His childhood was spent in Corsica; at the end of the year 1778 he entered the college of Autun, in 1779 the military school of Brienne, and in 1783 the military school of Paris. In 1785, when he was in garrison at Valence, as a lieutenant, he occupied his leisure with


researches into the history of Corsica and read many of the philosophers of his time, particularly Rousseau. These studies left him attached to a sort of Deism, an admirer of the personality of Christ, a stranger to all religious practices, and breathing defiance against "sacerdotalism" and "theocracy". His attitude under the Revolution was that of a citizen devoted to the new ideas, in testimony of which attitude we have his scolding letter, written in 1790, to Battafuoco, a deputy from the Corsican noblesse, whom the "patri- ots" regarded as a traitor, and also a work published by Bonaparte in 1793, "Le souper de Beaucaire", in which he takes the side of the Mountain in the Con- vention against the Federalist tendencies of the Girondins.

His military genius revealed itself in December, 1793, when he was twenty-four years of age, in his re- capture of Toulon from the English. He was made a general of brigade in the artillery, 20 December, and in 1794 contributed to Mass^na's victories in Italy. The political sus]iiciiins aroused by his friendship with the younger H(il)i's[)iprre after 9 Thermidor of the Year III (27 July, 1794), the intrigues which led to his being removed from the Italian frontier and sent to command a brigade against the Vendeans in the west, and ill-health, which he used as a pretext to re- fuse this post and remain in Paris, almost brought his career to an end. He contemplated leaving France to take command of the sultan's artillery. But in 1795 when the Convention was threatened, Bonaparte was selected for the duty of pouring grapeshot upon its enemies from the platform of the church of Saint- Roch (13 Vendemiaire, Year IV) . He displayed great moderation in his hour of victory, and managed to earn at once the gratitude of the Convention and the esteem of its enemies.

The Campaign in Italy. — On 8 March, 1798, he con- tracted a civil marriage with the widow of Alexandre de Beauharnais, Maric-Joscphine-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, wlio was liorn in Martinique, in 1763, of a family originally belonging to the neighbourhood of Blois. In the same month Napoleon set out for Italy, where the Directory, prompted by Carnot, had appointed him commander-in-chief against the First Coalition. The victory of Montenotte, over the Austrians commanded by Beaulieu, and those of Mil- lesimo, Dego, Ceva, and Mondovi, over Colle's Pied- montese troops, forced Victor Amadcus, King of Sar- dinia, to conclude the armistice of Cherasco (28 April, 1796). Wishing to effect a junction on the Danube with the Army of the Rhine, Bonaparte spent the fol- lowing May in driving Beaulieu acrossNorthernltaly, and succeeded in jjushing him back into the Tyrol. On 7 May he was ordered by the Directory to leave half of his troojjs in Lombardy, under Kellermann's command, and march with the other luilf against Leg- horn, Rome, and Naples. Unwilling to share the glory with Kellermann, Bonaparte replied by tender- ing his resignation, and the order was not insisted on. In a proclamation to his .soldiers (20 May, 1796) he declared his intention of leading them to the banks of the Tiber to chastise those who had "whetted the daggers of civil war in France" and "basely assassi- nated" Basseville, the French minister, to "re-estab- lish the Capitol, place there in honour the statues of heroes who had made themselves famous", and to "arouse the Roman people benumbefl by many cen- turies of bondage". In June heenlered the Romagna, appeared at Bologna and Ferrara, and made prisoners of several prelates. The Court of Rome dimandcd an armistice, and Bonaparte, who was far fnun (':igi'r for this war against the Holy See, granted it. The Peace of Bologna (23 June, 1796) obligcfl the Holy See to give up Bologna and Ferrara to French occupation, to pay twenty-one million francs, to surrender 100 pic- tures, 500 manuscripts, and the busts of Junius and Marcus Brutus. The Directory thought these terras