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NAVARRE


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NAVARRE


October, 1898. On 3 December, 1902, an industrial boarding-school for the Navajos, erected by Mother Drexel, was opened at St. Michael's, and has since been conducted by her community, the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament. At present (1910) the school is attended by 1.50 Navajo pupils. A branch mission was established at Chin Lee, Arizona, in 1905, and a chapel built at Lulcachukai, Arizona. 231 chil- dren and adults have been baptized at St. Michael's, and 78 have made their first Holy Communion. The way has been prepared; the Navajos are well-disposed towards the Cathohc missionaries and give founded hopes for an abundant harvest of souls.

Much attention has been given by the Franciscans to the study and construction of the Navajo language. In 1910 they published "An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navajo Language", and also "A Navajo English Catechism of Christian Doctrine for the Use of Navajo Children"; other worlcs are in preparation.

M.^TTHEwa, Navajo Legends (Boston, 1897); Idem, The Mouu' tain Chant in Fiflh Ann. Rep. of the Bur. of Elhnol. (Washington, 1887); Idem, The Night Chant, a Navajo Ceremony in Memoirs of the .American Museum of Natural History. VI (New York, 1902); Francisc.\n F.\thers, An Ethnologic Dictionary of the Navajo Language (St. Michael's, Arizona, 1910); Mendileff, Navajo Houses in Seventh Ann. Rep. of the Bur. of Ethnol. (Washington, 1898); Stevenson, Ceremonial of Hasjelti Dailjis, etc. in Eighth Annual Rep. of the Bur. of Ethnol. (Washington, 1891); Simpson, Report on the Navajo Country (1850); CuLiN, Games of North American Indians in Twenty-fourth Ann. Rep. of the Bur. of Elhnol. (Washington. 1902); Ben.wides, Memorial. 1630 in Land of Sunshine, XIII (1900).

Anselm Weber.

Navarre. — The territory formerly known as Na- varre now belongs to two nations, Spain and France, according as it lies south or north of the Western Pyrenees. Spanish Navarre is bounded on the north by French Navarre, on the north-east by the Province of Huesca, on the east and south-east by the Province of Saragossa, on the south by the province of Logrono, and on the west by the Basque Provinces of Guipuz- coa and Alava. It lies partly in the mountainous region of the Pyrenees and partly on the banks of the Ebro; in the mountains dwell the Basques; in the south, the Spaniards. It is made up of 269 communes in the five districts of Pamplona, Aoiz, Estella, Ta- falla, and Tudela, Pamplona being the capital. French, or Lower, Navarre (Basse-Navarre) belongs to the Department of Basses-Pyrendes, and forms the western part of the Arrondissement of Maulcon and the Cantons of Hasparren and Labastide-Clairence in the Arrondissement of Bayonne. It borders on B(?arn to the north, on Soule to the east, on the Pyr- enees to the south and south-west, on Labourd to the west and north-west, and extends over the districts of Arberoue, Mixe, Ostabares, Oss(5s, Baigorry, Cize. The principal city, Donajouna, or St.-Jean-Pied-de- Port, stands on the River Nive, in the Arrondissement of Maul(5on.

History. — The history of the two divisions of the country is identical until the year 1512, when Spanish Navarre was conquered by Ferdinand the Cathohc, the northern part remaining French. Little is known of the earliest history of the country, but it is certain that neither the Romans nor the Visigoths nor the Arabs ever succeeded in permanently subjugating the inhabitants of the Western Pyrenees, who had always retained their own language. The capture of Pam- plona by Charlemagne in 778 was not a last ing victory: in the same year the Basques and Navarrese defeated him at the Pass of Roncesvalles. In 806 and 812, Pamplona seems to have been again taken by the Franks. When, however, the Prankish emperors, on account of difficulties at home, wire no Icjngcr able to give their attention to the outlying lionlerlands of their empire, the country, little by httle, entirely withdrew from their allegiance, and about this time began the formation of a dynasty which soon became very powerful. The first King of Pamplona of this X.— 46


dynasty was Encco Arista (839), his elder brother, Garcia Semen, having received as a dukedom Vas- conia, the original Navarre. After the death of Eneoo Arista (852), the two territories were united and Semen Garcia, the eldest son of the Count of Alavaris, was chosen king. In 860, the united Pam- plonese and Navarrese gave the Crown to the son of Arista, Garcia II Eneco, who zealously defended his country against the encroachments of Islam, but was killed at Aybar (882) in a battle against the Emir of Cordova. He was succeeded by his eldest son Fortun Garcia, who was held a prisoner for fifteen years by the infidels, and who, after a reign of twenty-two years, became a monk at Leyra, the oldest convent in Navarre, to which no less than seventy-two other con- vents were subject.

The choice of the Navarrese now fell upon his son Sancho Garcia I, surnamed Abarca (905-925), who fought against the Moors with repeated success and joined Ultra-Pucrtos, or Basse-Navarre, to his own dominions, extending its territory as far as Najera. As a thank-offering for his victories, he founded, in 924, the convent of Albelda. Before his death, all Moors had been driven from the country. His suc- cessor, Garcia Sanchez (925-70), surnamed El Tem- bl6n (the Trembler), who had the support of his ener- getic and diplomatic mother Teuda, likewise engaged in a number of conflicts with the Moors. Under the sway of his son, Sancho el ISlayor (the Great — 970- 1033), the country attained the greatest prosperity in its history. He seized the country of the Pisuerga and the Cea, which belonged to the Kingdom of Leon, conquered Castile, and ruled from the boundaries of Galicia to those of Barcelona. At his death, he un- fortunately divided his possessions among his four sons, so that the eldest, Garcia, received Navarre, Guipuzcoa, Vizcaya, and small portions of Bcarn and Bigorre; Castile and the lands between the Pisuerga and the Cea went to Fernando; to Gonzalo were given Sobrarbe and Ribagorza; the Countship of Aragon was allotted to the youngest son Ramiro. The coun- try was never again united: Castile was permanently joined to Leon, Aragon enlarged its territory, annex- ing Catalonia, while Navarre could no longer extend its dominions, and became in a measure dependent upon its powerful neighbours. Garcia III (1035-54) was succeeded by Sancho III (1054-76), who was murdered by his brothers.

In this period of independence the ecclesiastical affairs of the country reached a high state of develop- ment. Sancho the Great was brought up at Leyra, which was also for a short- time the capital of the Dio- cese of Pamplona. Beside this see, there existed the Bishopric of Oca, which was united in 1079 to that of Burgos. In 1035 Sancho the Great re-estabUshed the See of Palencia, which had been laid waste at the time of the Moorish invasion. When, in 1045, the city of Calahorra was wrested from the Moors, under whose dominion it had been for more than tlirce hundred years, a see was also founded here, which in the .same year ab.sorbed that of Najera and, in lOSS, that of Alaba, the jurisdiction of which covered about the same ground as that of the present diocese of Vitoria. To Sancho the Great, also, the See of Pamplona owed its re-establishment, the king liiiving, for this purpose, convoked a .synod at Leyra in 10_'2 and one at Pam- plona in 1023. The.se .synods likewise instituted a re- form of ecclesiastical life witli the above-named con- vent as a centre.

After the murder of Sancho III (1076), Alfonso VI, King of Castile, and Sancho Ramirez of Aragon, ruled jointly in Navarre; the towns south of the Ebro to- gether with the Basque Provinces fell to Castile, the remainder to Aragon, which retained them until 1134. Sancho Ramirez (1076-94) and his .son Pedro Sanchez (1094-1104) conquered Huesca; Alfon.so el Batallador (the Fighter— 1104-1134), brother of Pedro Sanchea,