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NAVARRE


723


NAVARRETE


grada, XXXII (Madrid, 177'J) ; Yanouas t Miranda, Cronica de los reyes de Navarra (Pamplona, 1S43) ; Idem, Historic compen- diada del reino de Navarra (S. Sebastian, 1832) ; Idem, Diccionario de las antiffUedades de Navarra (Pamplona, 1840-43) : Bascle de Lagr^ze, La Navarre fran^aise (Paris, 1881); Blade, Les Vascojis cspagnols (Agen. 1891); Boissonade, Histoire de la reuniondela Navarre d la Castille (Paris, 1893); Jattrgain, La Vasconie (Pan, 1898 — ); RuANO Pbieto, Anexioii del Reino de Navarra en tiempo del Rey Catolico (Madrid, 1899) ; Arigita y Lasa, Coleccidn de docu- mentos para la historia de Navarra (Pamplona, 1900).

Otto Hartig.

Navarre, Andrew L. See New Guinea, Vicari- ate Apostolic of.

Navarrete, Domingo FERN.iNDEZ, Dominican missionary and archbishop, b. c. 1610 at Penafiel in Old Castile; d. 1689 at Santo Domingo. He received the religious habit about 1630 and on completing his studies was offered the chair of Thomistic theology in several Spanish uni\-ersities. He preferred, however, to devote his life to the conversion of the heathen, and in 1646 with twenty-seven of Ins brethren left his na- tive land and proceeding by way of Mexico, arrived in the PhiHppine Islands, 23 June, 1648. He taught theology in tlie Dominican University of St. Thomas, Manila. In 16.57 with several of his bretliren he went to China and, after learning the language, took up mis- sionary labour chiefly in the province of Fo-kien. The persecution which broke out in 166.5 brought disaster to the missions. Forbidden to preach, he occupied himself with writing, hoping by tliis means to spread and confirm the faith. Being hampered too much he went in 1673 as jjrefect of the Dominican mission to Rome to lay before the authorities there the question of Chinese Rites which had reached an acute stage be- tween the Jesuits on one side and the Dominicans and Franciscans on the other (see China) . He was highly esteemed by Innocent XI, who wished to make him bishop of the Chinese missions. He refused the hon- our, but on his return to Spain in lti77 the pope, at the suggestion of Charles II, forced him to accept the Archbishopric of Santo Domingo, where he laboured with zeal and fidelity till his death. While on the question of Chinese Rites he was opposed to the Jes- uits, sometimes attacking them very severely ; in his diocese he entertained the highest regard for them. In his letters to the \-iceroy and to the king, requesting them to permit the fathers of the Society to establish a college in his residential city, he pays them a glowing tribute.

Among his principal works may be mentioned "Tra- tados hist6ricos, politicos, eticos y rehgiosos de la monarquia de China" (Madrid, 1676); "Catechismus, Ungua sinica", 2 vols; "De mirabilibus Dei nomini- bus, lingua sinica," 2 vols.; "Prajceptor ethnicus ex optimis quibusque Sinensium hbris extractus, et ex eorumdem sententiis concinnatus, lingua sinica."

QuETiF-EcHARD. .S.S. Ord. Prad., II, 720-23; Touron, Horn. III. de I'ordre de S. Dominique, V, 627-38.

Joseph Schroeder.

Navarrete, Juan Fernandez, a Spanish painter, b. at Logrono, 1526 and died at Segovia, 1579 (at Toledo, February, 1579 or 28 March, 1579?). He is called el Much (the mute) because he lost his hearing when a child of three and, in consequence, his power of speech. His parents, who were well to do and per- haps of noble birth placed him with the Hieronymite monks of Estrella where Fray Vicente, a gifted brother, was his first teacher in art. Navarrete's tal- ents were early discovered because he made all his wants known through rapid and vigorous black and white sketches. He may have been a pupil of Be- cerra, Spain's great fres(« painter, but it is certain that he went when a youth to the grciit Italian centres of art and under Titian in Venice ;ic(|uircd that tech- nique and knowledge of colour which e;iriie(l him the name of "the Spanish Titian". He nlurnnl to Spain a painter of repute, and travelled extensively in his native countrj', leaving works from his hand in her


important cities. In 156S he was made painter to Philip II, received a salary of two hundred ducats, "besides just payment for his work", and was com- missioned to decorate the Escorial. In 1575 he com- pleted a "Nativity " wherein are three dominant hghts; one from St. Joseph's candle, one from the glory above, and the most radiant of all from the divine Child as in Correggio's "Notte". In one "Holy Family" he painted such strange accessories, a cat, a dog, and a partridge, that the king made him promise never again to put "such indecorous things in a holy picture". Though called the Spanish Titian, Navar- rete was not an imitator of any Italian; he was an original and he painted rapidly, freely, and spontane- ously. His composition, especially in groups of fig- utes, was masterly and was excelled only by that of VelAsquez. " He spoke by his pencil with the braimra of Rubens without his coarseness". Navarrete's work greatly influenced the development of Spanish art and after his death Lope de Vega wrote: "No countenance he painted was dumb". Despite the artists's infirmity he was an agreeable companion, played cards, read, and wrote much, was broad- minded and generous. When his patron ordered Titian's "Last Supper" to be cut because it was too large for a place in the refectory of the Escorial, it was el Mudo who protested most. In the refectory at Estrella, where he received his first instruction in painting are some of Navarrete's best pictures. The following works may be mentioned: "Holy Family", at Weimar; "St. John in Prison", at St. Petersburg; "St. Jerome", in the Escorial; "Holy Family", in the Escorial.

Stirling-Maxwell, Annals of the Artists of Spain (London, 1891) ; Vlardot, Les Musees d^Espagne, d' Anglcterre et de Belgique (Paris, 1843) ; Ford, Handbook for Travelers in Spain (London, 1847).

Leigh Hunt.

Navarrete, MaktIn Fernandez de, a Spanish navigator and writer, b. at Avalos (Logrono), 8 November, 1765; d. at Madrid, 8 October, 1844. He received his early education partly in his native town and partly at the seminarj' of Vergara. At the age of fifteen he entered the navy and a little later in 1782 served with distinction in the unsuccessful operations against Gibraltar. Through overwork, he became broken down in health and was compelled to withdraw from active service for a t ime ; but during this period of enforced rest, he devoted himself to historical research and in 1789 was commissioned by the Minister of Ma- rine to search the national archives and to gather all documents and data in connexion with the maritime history of Spain. He devoted three years to this work, and among the documents he discovered were the diaries of the first and third voyages of Columbus. War having been declared between Spain and France, he rejoined the navy in 1792 and took part in the siege of Toulon. Shortly after this he was promoted to the grade of captain in the navy. He was then placed under the orders of Captain General Langara of the Department of Cadiz with whom he afterwards served in various capacities when the latter was made Minister of Marine. While in the Marine Office, he brought about many improvements and reforms, among them the planning and organizing of the hydro- graphical office of which he afterwards became the head (1823). In ISOS, he resigned his government charges and retired from public life rather than recog- nize the claims of Jose]ih Bonaparte who had been .se;i.led U]iiiii lli<' Spanish Ihrnne. In 1S14, he was made seeretarv of tlie .\e;uleniv of St. Fenlinand, and fi-oni lS2t nniil liis deatli, wa.s'a director of the Aciul- eniy of llislciry. Sevend limes he was electetl to represent his province a.s .senator, but his career in the senate was not, a brilliant: one. Most of Navarrete's writing is historical. His best work, and the one which gives him his reputation, is "Colecci6n de