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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/866

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issiip of anv m:irrui|;<" f'o ilissolvod, rxoopt wlioro (he lii;irri;»s<' is dissolved l)i>causo ritlicrof the parlies had aiiollier wife or husband UvitiK at the time of a seeond or other marriape. Sueh marriage sliall be deemed void from the l>eKinning, and th(> issue thereof shall be illepilimate. The grounds for absolute divore<' are: (1) adulterv; (2) wilful, continued, and obstinate de- sertion for the term of two years. Divorces a mmsa el Ihnro may be decreed for (1) adultery; (2) wilful, continued, and obstinate desertion for the ternri of two years; (3) extreme cruelty in either of the parties. In all cases of divorce a mctiJ<a el thoro, the court may decree a separat ion for ever thereafter, or for a limited time, with a i)rovis!on that, in case of a reconciliation at any time thereafter, the parties may apply for a revocation or suspension of the decree, and upon such application the Court shall make sueh order.

Wii.i-s. — .\ll ])ersons of sound mind and of the age of twenty-one years arc legally competent to dispose of property by will. No specific form of words is necessary in a will, but the testator must state in the document that it is his will; and it must be signed, and declared or published, by the testator as his will in the presence of at least two subscribing witnesses. The witnes,ses must sign in the presence of the testator, and in the jircsence of each other. A codicil to a will must be made and executed with the same require- ments as a will, regarding declaration of its character, signature, and witnesses. Unwritten or nuncupative wills are legal under some rare circumstances, as in cases of sudden dangerous sickness or accident, in the presence of at least three competent witnesses, and at the request of the person about to die. Devises and bequests may be validly made for charitable and re- ligious purposes and to religious societies.

Cemeteries. — The parochial corporation statute enables church corporations to hold title to "burying places", and the Diocesan Corporation Act of 1908 makes the diocesan corporation "capable unlimit- edly" of acquiring and holding "leases, legacies, de- vises, moneys, donations, goods and chattels of all kinds, church edifices, school houses, college buildings, Beminaries, parsonages. Sisters' houses, hospitals, or- phan asylums, reformatories and all other kinds of re- ligious, ecclesiastical, educational and charitable in- stitutions, and the lands whereon the same are, or may be erected, and cemeteries or burying places and any lands, tenements and hereditaments suitable for any or all of said purposes, in any place or places in any 8uch diocese; and the same, or any part thereof, to lease, sell, grant, demise, alien and dispose of ; . . . to exercise any corporate powers necessary and proper to the carrying out of the above enumerated powers, and to the carrying out of the purposes of such corpora- tion and its institutions."

Education. — A single little Dutch school in Bergen (now Jersey City) in lt)()2 marked the beginning of the free public school .system in New Jersey. That was almost two hundred and fifty years ago and since that time the schools have increased gradually in num- ber and size until, according to the New Jersey School Report of 1909, there are now 20.52 public schools in New Jersey, with a total seating capacity of 426,719. The total value of the school property is estimated at 833,900,466.00. There are 11,235 teachers employed, of which 12,50 are men and 9985 are women. These receive an average yearly salary of $718.40. For the school year 1908-9 the current expenses of the schools amounted to 811,583,201 ; the cost of permanent im- provements was .S4, 990,887, and the special appropri- ations equalled $647,2.53. These amounted to a total appropriation of S17,227,.331. The total enrollment of pupils for the .same year was 424,534. The state superintendent, at the head of the state department of public instruction, exercisers a general supervision over the public .school system of the state. He is ap- pointed by the governor, as also is the state board of

education, which consists of two members from each congn'ssional district. The county sup('riiiten<lentsof schools are ap|)()inted by the state board of cducalion. This ho.ard also exercises supervision over the different stale ('(lucaticmal institutions, such for example as the normal schools. Each of the many school districts, into which the state is divided, has its own school or schools, controlled by the officers, whom the voters of the district elect. In the cities and large towns there are superintendents or supervising principals and school-boards, appointed by the mayor.

New Jersey has two state normal schools — one at Trenton and one at Montclair. The school at Tren- ton was established in 1855 by an Act of the Legisla- ture, and has in connexion with it the State Model School. The Montclair State Normal School was formally opened on 28 September, 1908. The in- creasing demand for professionally trained teachers, and the inability of the State Normal School at Tren- ton to meet it, had made another normal school neces- sary. At Beverly is the Farnum School, a prepara- tory school associated with the State Normal School; at Trenton is the State School for Deaf Mutes; at Bordentown the Manual Training and Industrial School for Colored Youths; and connected with Rut- gers College is the State Agricultural College. The principal institutions for higher education in New Jer- sey are Princeton University at Princeton (founded 1746); Stevens Institute of Technology at Hobokcn; Rutgers College at New Brunswick (chartered as Queens College, 1766); Bordentown Female College at Bordentown; Saint Peter's College, Jersey City; Saint Benedict's College, Newark; Seton Hall Col- lege, South Orange (founded 1856). The three last- mentioned are Catholic institutions. (For full statis- tics concerning the Catholic schools, see the articles on the Dioceses of Newark and Trenton.)

SiTGR.WES, Manual of Legislative Practice (Trenton, 1836) ; RC' vision of New Jersey (Trenton, 1877) ; Supplement to the Revision of N. J. (Trenton, 1886) ; General Statutes of N. J. (Trenton, 1895); Fitzgerald, Legislative Manual (Trenton, 1886-1910); Thirty-seventh Annual Report of the State Board of Agriculture (Trenton, 1909) ; Geological Survey of N. J. The Clays and Clay Industry of N. J. (Trenton, 1903) ; Meeker, New Jersey (Eliza- beth, 1906) ; WHITEHEAn,Con(rt6u/ions of the Early History of Perth Amboy and Adjoining Country (New York, 1856) ; Flynn, The Catholic Church in N. J. (Morristown, 1904) ; Sypher and Apqar, Hist, of N. J. (Philadelphia, 1870) ; Proceedings of the N. J. His- torical Society (Newark, 1867-1900); Zwieblein, Religion in New Netherland (Rochester, 1910); Archives of the State of N. J. (New- ark, 1880 — ) ; MoLFORD, Civil and Political Hist, of N. J. (Phila- delphia, 1851) ; Smith, Hist, of the Colony of Nova Caisarea or N, J. (Burlington, New Jersey, 1765) ; Tanner, Province of N. J., 1664- 17S8 (New York, 1908); Lee, New Jersey (New York, 1902); RAnM, Hist, of N. J. (Philadelphia, 1877).

William J. Kearns.

Newman, John Henry (1801-1890), Cardinal- Deacon of St. George in Velabro, divine, philosopher, man of letters, leader of the Tractarian Movement, and the most illustrious of English converts to the Church, b. in the City of London, 21 Feb., 1801, the eldest of six children, threeboys and three girls; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 11 Aug., 1890. Over his descent there has been some discussion as regards the paternal side. His father was John Newman, a banker, his mother Jemima Fourdrinier, of a Huguenot family settled in London as engravers and paper-makers. It is stated that the name was at one time spelt Newmann; it is certain that many Jews, English or foreign, have borne it; and the suggestion has been thrown out that to his Hebrew affinities the cardinal owed, not only his cast of features, but some of his decided characteristics — e. g., his remarkable skill in music and mathematics, his dislike of metaphysical specu- lations, his grasp of the concrete, and his nervous tem- perament. But no documentary evidence has been found to confirm the suggestion. His French pedigree is undoubted. It accounts for the religious training, a modified Calvinism, which he received at his mother's knees; and perhaps it helped towards the