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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 10.djvu/92

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MATURINS


GR


MAURICE


chronica cum continuatione et vita Berchtoldi "; "Die Chronik dcs Matthias von Neucnburg", from the Berne ami Strasl)urK manuscripts (Berne, 1866); A. Hiiber, " Mathiic Neuwenburgensis Cronica, 127:(- 1350" in Bohmer, Fontes reruni tlcrnianicariim ", IV (Stuttgart, 186S), 149-276; '•(.'oiuimiaticmcs", 276-297. It has also been edited from a \'ienna and a Vatican manuscript in " Abhandlungen der Uesell- schaft der W issonsoliaflen", xxxvii-viti (Gottingen, 1S91-2), and translated into German by Grandaur (Leipzig, 1S92).

PoTTHAST. BMiotheca (Berlin, 1896), 780 sq.; Weiland, Introduction to the above-mentioned German version, pp. i-xxviii.

Patricids Schlager. Maturins. See Trinitarian Order. Matz, Nicholas C. See Denver, Diocese op.

Maundy Thursday. — The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the insti- tution of the Eucharist and is the oldest of the ob- servances peculiar to Holy Week. In Rome various accessory ceremonies were early added to this com- memoration, namely the consecration of the holy oils and the reconciliation of penitents, ceremonies ob- viously practical in character and readily explained by the proximity of the Christian Easter and the neces- sity of preparing for it. Holy Thursday could not but be a day of liturgical reunion since, in the cycle of movable feasts, it brings around the anniversary of the institution of the Liturgy. On that day, whilst the preparation of candidates was being completed, the Church celebrated the Missa chrismalis of which we have already described the rite (see Holy Oils) and, moreover, proceeded to the reconciliation of penitents. In Rome everything was carried on in daylight, whereas in Africa on Holy Thursday the Eucharist was celebrated after the evening meal, in view of more exact conformity with the circumstances of the Last Sup- per. Canon xxix of the Council of Carthage dispenses the faithful from fast before communion on Holy Thursday, because, on that day, it was customary to take a bath, and the bath and fast were considered incompatible. St. .\ugustine, too, speaks of this custom (Ep. cxviii ad Januarium, n. 7); he even says that, as certain persons did not fast on that day, the oblation was made twice, morning and even- ing, and in this way those who did not observe the fast could partake of the Eucharist after the morn- ing meal, whilst those who fasted awaited the evening repast.

Holy Thursday was taken up with a succession of ceremonies of a joyful character: the baptism of neo- phytes, the reconciliation of penitents, the consecra- tion of the holy oils, the washing of the feet, and the commemoration of the Blessed Eucharist, and, be- cause of all these ceremonies, the day received different names, all of which allude to one or another of its solemnities.

Redditit) symboli was so called because, before being admitted to baptism, the catechumens had to recite the creed from memory, either in presence of the bishop or his representative.

Pedilavium (washing of the feet), traces of which are found in the most ancient rites, occurred in many churches on Holy Thursday, the capitilavium (wash- ing of the head) having taken place on Palm Simday (St. .i\ugu.stine, " Ep. cxviii, cxix",c. 18).

Exnmiilogesis, and reconciliation of penitents: the letter of Pope Innocent I to Deeentius of Gubbio, tes- tifies that in Rome it was customary "quintaferia ante Pascha" to absolve penitents from their mortal and venial sins, except in cases of serious illness which kept them away from church (Labbe, "Concilia", II, col. 1247; St. Ambrose, "Ep. xxxiii ad Marcellinam"). The penitents heard the Missa pro Tecoiicilintvme poenitentium, and absolution was given them before the


offertory. The " Sacramentary " of Pope Gelasius contains an Ordn ngciitibus puhlicnm pindlentiam (Muratori, " Liturgia romana vetus", I, G48-5,')l).

Olei cxorciziili co/ifciiin. — In the fifth century the custom was established of consecrating on Holy Thurs- day all the chrism necessary for the anointing of the newly baptized. The "Comes Hieronymi", the Gre- gorian and Gelasian sacramentaries and the "Missa ambrosiana" of Pamelius, all agree upon the confec- tion of the chrism on that day, as does also the " Ordo romanus I".

Aiuni'crsarium Eucharistice. — The nocturnal cele- bration and the double oblation early became the ob- ject of increasing disfavour, until in 692 the Council of Trullo promulgated a formal prohibition. The Eu- charistic celebration then took place in the morning, and the bishop reserved a part of the sacred species for the communion of the morrow, Missa prcpsancti- ficalorum (Muratori, " Liturg. rom. Vetus , II, 993).

Otiier Obserimtjces. — On Holy Thursday the ringing of bells ceases, the altar is stripped after vespers, and the night office is celebrated under the name of Tene- brae.

H. Leclercq.

Maunoury, AucusTE-FRANf ois, Hellenist and exe- gete, b. at Champseeret, Orne, France, 30 Oct., 1811; d. at S^ez, Orne, 17 Nov., 1898. He made brilliant classical studies at the preparatory seminary at S^ez, to which institution he returned after his theological course, and where he spent the whole of his long priestly career. Until 1852, he taught the classics with great success, and then became professor of rhet- oric, a position which he occupied for twenty-two years. During this period, keeping abreast of the progress of Hellenistic studies in France and Germany, he composed, published, and revised those of his works ("Grammaire de la Langue Grecque"; "Chrestoma- thie" etc.) which proved him to be one of the best Greek scholars of his day. Towards 1S66. Maunoury began his work as a commentator of Holy Writ, by treating some sections of the Gospel in the " Semaine Catholiciue " of his native diocese; but it was only after 1875, that he gave himself fully to the pursuit of Bibli- cal studies. In 1877, he became canon of the cathe- dral of Scez; and the following year, he began to pub- lish his commentaries on all the Epistles of the New Testament.

These commentaries appeared in five volumes, as follows: (1) "Com. sur L'EpItre aux Romains" (Paris, 1878); (2) "Com. sur les deux Epitres aux Corinthi- ens" (Paris, 1879); (3) "Com. sur les Epitres aux Ga- lates, aux Eph^siens, aux Phillippiens, aux Colossiens, et aux The.ssaloniciens " (Paris, 1880); (4) "Com. sur les Epitres a Timothi^e, -X Tite, a Philemon, aux H^- breux " (Paris, 1882) ; (5) " Com. sur les Epitres Catho- liques de St. Jacques, St. Pierre, St. Jean et St. Jude" (Paris, 1888). In explaining the Sacred Text he made an excellent use of his great familiarity with Greek grammar and authors, availed him.self chiefly of the commentaries of St. John Chrysostom and Theodoret, and always remained an enlightened and safe theolo- gian. In 1894, he published his "Com. in Psalmos" (2 vols., Paris), a Latin work, written with elegance, al- most exclusively on the basis of the Vulgate and the Septuagint. His only contribution to apologetics is a volume entitled "Soirees d'Automne, ou la Religion prouv^e aux gens du monde " (Paris, 1887).

Hdrter, Nomenclator; Via., Did. de la Bible, s. v.

Francis E. Gigot.

Maurice, Saint, leader {pTimicerius) of the Theban Legion, massacred at Agaunum, about 287 (286, 297, 302 303), by order of Maximian Herculius. Feast, 22 Sept. The legend (Acta SS., VI, Sept., 308, 895) relates that the legion, composed entirely of Chris- tians, had been called from Africa to suppress a revolt