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navy, Carausius had pursued and conquered the pi- rates of the tJerman ocean: then, driven by greed and ambition, he had forced Britain to do honiagc to liim, and seized the whole trade in Gaul and Britain. Iii 286 he even upprojiriatcd the title of Augustus, and caused coins to be struck which bore his own portrait. Even Diocletian, by a eomiiromise in 290, was forced to recognize Carausius as the legal emperor, while the latter agreed to supply Diocletian with corn, as had been the custom.

As Diocletian left Syria to enter the countries of the Lower Danube, he met Ma.ximianus, and both the em- perors crossed the Alps in the beginning of 291 in order to attend a conference at Milan, there to discuss the better administration of the empire and the improve- ment of the constitution. Henceforward two sub- stitutes, called Cwsars, were to supplement the two governing emperors. Constantius and Galerius were proclaimed Ciesars 1 March, 293; the first was forced to marry the stepdaughter of Maximianus, Theodora, after the exile of his mother Helena. Maximianus now took charge of the administration of Italy, Africa, and Spain. His residence was Milan, where he was surrounded by (10(11) Illyrian picked troops, called Her- culians. Constantius on his part was now successful in his struggle with Carausius. The war came quickly to an end, as Carausius was assassinated by AUectus, prefect of his guard, in 293. Constantius then re- united Britain with the Roman Empire, while Maxi- mianus protected the frontiers of Gaul against the Teutons on the Up|)er Rhine. When Constantius had returned from Britain, Maximianus went in 297 to Africa, where he sucessfully made war upon rebellious triljes of the Moors, and sent a great many captives into the other provinces. In 302 he celebrated a great triumph with Diocletian in Rome; seventeen times he had borne the title of Imperator. The persecution of the Christians, which Diocletian had conducted with reckless brutality in the East since 303, was also taken up by Maximianus in the western provinces, of which he was governor.

It is said that during these persecutions — it is im- possible to stat<> the time correctly — the Christian sol- diers of the Theban legion also suffered martyrdom in Agaunum (St-Maurice, Canton of Valais, Switzerland) in the then Diocese of Octodurum. The Christian soldici's of this legion refused to execute his orders when Maximianus, on a march over what is now the Great St. Bernard, commanded them to punish the Christians living in these districts; for this refusal the legion was twice decimated by the sword, and, as the survivors held out to the last, all the soldiers were mas- sacred by order of the emperor. Because Rome was degraded by Diocletian more and more to the position of a provincial town, and because Galerius's new and hard system of taxes was to be extended also to Italy and to Rome, the senators and the pretorians pro- claimed as Csesar M. Aurelius Maxentius, the son of Maximianus; the latter laid down the purple at Milan. But the new emperor proved to be incapable of gov- erning, and Maximianus, who was popular with the army, was recalled to restore order for the new Augus- tus. This he did not accomplish, and the old Diocle- tian, living as a private person in Salona, called a meet- ing of all the memljers of the dynasties at Carnuntum for the end of the year 307. Maximianus had to re- nounce the purple for the second time. He now went to Gaul, and gave his youngest daughter Fausta in marriage to Constantine. As his hope to regain his former im|)erial dignity failed here also, he returned to his son Maxentius in Italy. Repulsed by the latter and spurned liy Galerius on account of his ambitions, he departed once more for Gaul and donned the im- perial purple for the third time. When the news of Constant ine's approach reached his own soldiers, they surrendered him to his rival and opponent at Marsilia. Although Constantine in his generosity pardoned him,

he returned to the forging of nefariovis schemes against his son-ni-law, and finally was compelled to take his own life in 310.

culwn (If n„„-lrl„.n rl It- Inomphc dc Vfglixr (Paris, 1S90).

Kahl Hoeber.

Maximilian, the name of several martyrs. (1) Maximilian of Antioch, a .soldier, martyred at An- tioch, Jan. 3,53, with Bonosus, a fellow soldier, of the Herculean cohort.; they were standard-bearers, and re- fused to remove the chrismon (monogram of Christ) from the the standard, as had been ordered by Julian the Apostate. Count Julian, uncle of the emperor, conimanded them to replace the chrinmon with images of idols, and, upon their refusal, had them tortured and beheaded. The Roman martyrology and most other calendars mention them on 21 August, while in a a few martyrologies and in the heading which is pre- fixed to their Acts, 21 Sept. (XII Kal. Oct.) is desig- nated as the day of their martyrdom. Both dates are wrong, as is evident from the Acts of the two martyrs, which represent Count Julian as infected with an ugly disease, contracted at the martyrdom of St. Theodoret 23 Oct., 362. (2) Maximilian of Celeia. — His Acts, composed in the thirteenth century and unreliable, say he was b. at Celeia (Cilli, Styria), made a pilgrimage to Rome, went as missionary to Noricum, became Arch- bishop of Laureacum (Lorch, near Passau), and suf- fered martyrdom under Numerianus (283-4). It is historically certain that Maximilian was a missionary in Noricum during the latter half of the third century, founded the church of Lorch, and suffered martyrdom. His cult dates at least from the eighth century. In that century St. Rupert built a church in his honour at Bischofshofen, and brought his relics thither. They were transferred to Passau in 985. His feast is cele- brated 12 Oct., at some places 29 Oct. (3) Maximi- lian OF Thebeste, martyred at Thebeste near Car- thage, 12 March, 29.5. Thinking a Christian was not permitted to be a soldier, he refu.sed to enter the army and was beheaded. Since death was not then the legal punishment for those who refused to join the army (Arrius Menander, Digest XLIX, xvi, 4 P. 10), it is probable that he was beheaded because he gave his Christianity as the reason of his refusal. He was buried at Carthage by the noble matron Pompejana. Acta SS.. Aug., IV, 42.';-430; Ruinart. Acta Marlyrum CRatisbon, 1859), 609-12; Leclercq, Les Martyrs, III (Pari.'), 1904), 100-04; TiLLEMONT, Meinoires pour strvir (i Vhiat. eccUs. des six premiers siicles, VII (Paris, 1700), 405-09; Tamayo, Discursos apologeticos dc las reliquias d. S. Bonoso y Maximiliano (Baesa, 1632). (2) Vita ac legenda S. Maximitiani in Pkz, Script, rerum ^us(r., I, 22-34. Concerning its value seo Rett- BERG, Kirchengesch. DeutschL, I (Gottingen, 1846), 158 sq. 'RKTZmGEU, Forsch. zur Bayr. Gesch. (Kemplen. 1S9.S), ;i25 sq.; Kerschbaumer, Gfsc/i. des Bw(. St.Pvrii.N (is7:,i. I. (;i-78. (3) Allard, Lop(T8^cu/ionrfeZ)w>c?<'(ien. I I I ' I M I'ns ,'i!)-105; Harnack Militia Chrif!ti (Tubingen. I9(l.^ , i i i i i:i enart, Aria Martyrum (Rati.sbon. 1859), 340-2, !■ . 1 1 l.i . i i n, i,, Les Martyrs, II (Paris, 1903), 152-5.

Michael Ott.

Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria, 1.598-1622, Elector of Bavaria and Lord High Steward of the Holy Roman Empire. 1623-16.51; b. at Munich, 17 April, 1573; d. at Ingolstadt. 27 September, 1651. The lasting services he rendered his country and the Cath- olic Church justly entitle him to the surname of " Great ". He was 1 he son of zealous Catholic parents, William V, the Pious, of Bavaria, and Henate of Lor- raine. Mentally well endowed. .Maximilian received a strict Catholic training from private tutors and later (1587-91) studied law, history, and nialheniatics at the University of Ingolstadt. lie further iiicrca.sed his knowledge by visits to foreign courts, as Prague and Naples, and to places of pilgrimage including Rome, Loretto, and Einsiedeln. Thus equi|)ped -Maximilian assumed (15 Oct., 1597) the government of the small, thinly populated country at his father's wish (hiring the latter's lifetime. Owiiigto the over-lenient rule of