Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 13.djvu/103

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RITES


73


RITES


to the second half of the thirteenth century, is pre- served at Trinity College, Dublin, while portions of an Epistolarium of about 1270 are at the Maglia- becchiana at Florence (D6, 1787). The entire Or- dinal was rearranged and revised in 1312 by Master Sibert de Beka, and rendered obligatory by the General Chapter, but it experienced some difficult}"^ in superseding the old one. Manuscripts of it are preserved at Lambeth (London), Florence, and else- where. It remained in force until 1532, when a committee was appointed for its revision; their work was approved in 1539, but published only in 1544 after the then General Nicholas Audet had intro- duced some further changes. The reform of the Roman liturgical books under St. Pius V called for a corresponding reform of the Carmelite Rite, which was taken in hand in 1580, the Breviary appearing in 1584 and the Missal in 1587. At the same time the Holy See withdrew the right hitherto exercised by the chapters and the generals of altering the liturgy of the order, and placed all such matters in the hands of the Sacred Congregation of Rites. The publica- tion of the Reformed Breviary of 1584 caused the newly established Discalced Carmelites to abandon the ancient rite once for all and to adopt the Roman Rite instead. Besides the various manuscripts of the Ordinal already mentioned, we have examined a large number of manus(Tii)t missals and breviaries preserved in public and private libraries in the Un- ited Kingflom, France, Italy, Spain, and other coun- tries. We have seen most of the early prints of the Missal enumerated by Weale, as well as some not mentioned by him, and the breviaries of 1480, 1490, 1504, 1510 (Horaj), 1542, 1568, 1575, and 1579.

Roughly speaking, the ancient Carmelite Rite may be said to stand about half way between the Carthusian and the Dominican rites. It shows signs of great antiquity — e. g. in the absence of liturgical colours, in the sparing use of altar candles (one at low Mass, none on the altar itself at high Mass but only acolytes' torches, even these being extinguished during part of the Mass, four torches and one candle in choir for Tenebrie) ; incense, likewise, is used rarely and with noteworthy restrictions; the Blessing at the end of the Mass is only i)ormittod where tlic cus- tom of the country requires it ; passing before the tabernacle, the brethren are directed to make a pro- found inclination, not a genuflexion. Many other features might be quoted to show that the whole rite points to a period of transition. Already ac- cording to the earliest Ordinal Communion is given under one speci(!s, the days of general Communion being seven, later on ten or twelve a year with leave for more frequent Communion under certain condi- tions. Extreme Unction was administered on the eyes, ears, nostrils, mouth, both hands (the palms, with no distinction between priests and others) and the feet superius. The Ordinal of 1312 on the con- trary orders the hands to be anointed exlerius, but also without distinction for the priests; it more- over adds another anointing on the breast {super pectus: per ardorem libidinis).

In the Mass there are some peculiarities, the altar remains covered until the priest an<l ministers are ready to begin, when the acolytes then roll hack the cover; likewise before the end of the Mass they cover the altar again. On great feasts the Introit is said three times, i. e. it is repeated both before and after the Gloria Patri; besides tlie I^pistle and Gospel there is a lesson or prophecy to be recited by an acolyte. At the Lavaho the prie-st leaves the altar for the piscina where he says that psalm, or else Veni Creator Spiritus or Deiis misereatur. Likewi.se after the first ablution he goes to the piscina to wash his fingers. During the Canon of the Mass the deacon moves a fan to keep the flies away, a custom still in use in Sicily and elsewhere. At the word fregil in


the form of consecration, the priest, according to the Ordinal of 1312 and later rubrics, makes a move- ment as if breaking the host. Great care is taken that the smoke of the thurible and of the torches do not interfere with the clear vision of the host when lifted up for the adoration of the faithful; the chalice, however, is only slightly elevated. The celebrating priest does not genuflect but bows reverently. After the Pater Noster the choir sings the psalm Deus venerunt gentes for the restoration of the Holy Land. The prayers for communion are identical with those of the Sarum Rite and other similar uses, viz. Domine sancte pater, Domine Jesu Christe (as in the Roman Rite), and Salve salus mundi. The Domine non sum dignus was introduced only in 1568. The Mass ended with Dominus vobiscum, lie missa est (or its equivalent) and Placeat. The chapter of 1324. or- dered the Salve regina to be said at the end of each canonical hour as well as at the end of the Mass. The Last Gospel, which in both ordinals serves for the priest's thanksgiving, appears in the Missal of 1490 as an integral part of the Mass. On Sundays and feasts there was, besides the festival Mass after Terce or Sext, an early Mass {malulina) without solemnities, corresponding to the commemorations of the Office. From Easter till Advent the Sunday Mass was therefore celebrated early in the morning, the high Mass being that of the Resurrection of our Lord; similarly on these Sundays the ninth lesson with its responsory was taken from one of the Easter days; these customs had been introduced soon after the conquest of the Holy Land. A solemn commemora- tion of the Resurrection was held on the last Sunday before Advent; in all other respects the Carmelite Liturgy reflects more especially the devotion of the order towards the Blessed Virgin.

The Divine Office also presents some noteworthy features. The first Vespers of certain feasts and the Vespers during Lent have a responsory usually taken from Matins. Compline has various hymns accord- ing to the season, and also special antiphons for the Canticle. The lessons at Matins follow a somewhat different plan from those of the Roman Office. The singing of the genealogies of Christ after Matins on Christmas and the Epiphany gave rise to beautiful ceremonies. After Tenebrte in Holy Week (sung at midnight) we notice the chant of the Tropi; all the Holy Week services present interesting archaic features. Other points to be mentioned are the antiphons Pro fidei meritis etc. on the Sundays from Trinity to Advent and the verses after the psalms on Trinity, the feasts of St. Paul, and St. Laurence. The hymns are those of the Roman Office; the proses appear to be a uniform collection which remained practically unchanged from the thirteenth century to 1544, when all but four or five were abolished. The Ordinal prescribes only four processions in the course of the year, viz. on Candlemas, Palm Sunday, the Ascension, and the Assumption.

The calendar of saints, in the two oldest recensions of the Ordinal, exhibits some feasts proper to the Holy Land, namely some of the early bishops of Jerusalem, the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and Lazarus. The only special features were the fejist of St. Anne, probably due to the fact that the Carmelites occupied for a short time a convent dedi- cated to her in Jerusalem (vacated by Benedictine nuns at the capture of that city in 1187), and the octave of the Nativity of Our Lady, which also was proper to the order. In the works mentioned below we have given the list of feasts added in the* course of three centuries, and shall here speak only of a few. The Chapter of 1306 introduced those of St. Louis, Barbara, Corpus Christi, and the Conception of Our Lady (in Conceptione seu potius veneratione sanctificationis B. V.); the Corpus Christi procession, however, dates only from the end of the fifteenth