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speaks or writes any word of disregard of the Fathers or ancient Doctors of the Church, even when not ap-

E roving their opinion; he esteemed them highly and ad acquired such a knowledge of their writings that he was no wav surpassed by any of his great rivals. Bacon was a faithful scholar of open character who frankly uttered what he thought, who was not afraid to blame what6oe\er and whomsoever he believed to deserve censure, a scholar who was in advance of his age by centuries. His iron will surmounted all difficulties and enabled him to acquire a knowledge so far surpassing the average science of his age, that he must be reckoned among the most eminent scholars of all times.

Of the vast Baconian bibliography we can mention only the most important books and articles in so far as we h.ave made use of them. Besides those already cited we must mention:, Script, illustr. maioris Brytann. Catalogus (Basle, 1577); Anecdota Oion. Index BriUinnicce SS. quos . . . collegtt Joan. Balctus, ed. Poole and Batesox (Oxford, 1902—); Wood, Hist, et antiq. Unirers. Oxon., I (Oxford, 1674); Idem, Athena: Oxon. (London, 1721), new ed. bv Buss (4 vols., London, 1813-20); Wharton, Anglia sacra (London, 1691); Hody, De Bibliorum text, original., versionibus grac. et latina Vulgata, III (Oxford, 1705) ; Lelandus, Comment, de Scriptor. Britannicis, ed. Hall (Oxford, 1709); Ocdin, Comment, de Script. Ecclesirs antiq., 1 (Frankfort, 1722), II-III (Leipzig, 1722); Wadding-Fgnseca, Aniiales Ord. Mm., IV-V; Wadding, Scriptores 0. M. (Rome, 1650, 1806, 1906); Tanner, Bibl. Britann.-Hibem. (London, 1748); Sbaralea, Supplement, ad SS. O. M. (Rome, 1806) ; Berger, De Vhist. de la Vulgate en France (Paris, 1887); Idem, Quam notitiam lingua hebr. habuerunt christiani med. wvi (Paris, 1893); cf. the criticism of this book by Soury in Bibl. de I'Ecole des Charles, LIV (1893), 733-38; Denifle, Die Handschr. der Bibel-Corrcctor. des 13. Jahrh. in Archiv f. Lit.- u. Kirchengesch. des Mittelalters, IV, 263 sqq., 471 sqq.; Doring, Die hciden Bacon in Archiv f. Gesch. d. Philos., XVII (1904), 3 sqq.; Feret, Les emprisonnements de R. Bacon in Revue des quest, histor., L (1891), 119-42; Idem, La facuUe de theol. de Paris (4 vols., Paris, 1894-96); Flugel, ft. Bacons Stellung in d. Gesch. d. Philologie in Philos. Studien, XIX (1902), 164 sqq.; Heitz, Essai histor. sur les rapports entre la philos. et la foi, de Berenger de Tours d St. Thomas (Paris, 1909), 117 sqq.; HiRscn, Early English Hebraists: ft. Bacon and his Pre- decessors in The Jewish Quarterly Review (Oct., 1890), reprinted in Idem, A Book of Essays (London, 1905), 1-72; Hist, de la France, XX (Paris, 1842), 227 sqq.; Hoffmans, La synthcse doctrinale de ft. B. in Archiv f. Gesch. d. Philos. (Berne, 1907) ; Idem, L'intuition mystique de la science in Revue Nio-Scholastique (1909), 370 sqq. (cf. 1906, 371 sqq.; 1908, 474 sqq.; 1909, 33 sqq.) ; Jarrett, a Thirteenth-Century Revision Committee of the Bible in Irish Theological Quarterly, IV (Maynooth, 1910), 56 sqq.; Jourdain, Discussion de quelques points de la biogr. de ft. B. in Comptes rendus Acad. Inscr. el BeUes-Lettres, I (1873), 309 sqq.; Krembs, ft. B.'s Optik in Natur u. Offenbarung (1900); Langen, R. Bacon in Histor. ZeUschr., LI (1883), 434-50; Martin, La Vulgate laline au XIII' siecle d'apres ft. B. (Paris, 1888) ; Mon. Germ. Hist.: SS., XXVIII, 569 sqq.; Narbey, Le moine R. B. el le mouvement scienlifique au XIII' siecle in Revue des quest, histor., XXXV (1894), 115 sqq.; Parrot, ft. B., sa personne, son genie, etc. (Paris, 1894); Pesch, De inspiratione S. Scripturoe (Freiburg, 1906), 163 sq.; Picavet, Les Editions de ft. B. in Journal des SavarUH (1905), .362-69; Idem, Deux directions de la thiol, et de Vezeykse au X III' tiicle. Thomas et Bacon in Revue de I'hist. des religions (1905), 172, or printed separately (Paris, 1905); Pohl, Das VerhtiUnis der Philos. zur Theql. hei ft. B. (Neustrelitz, 1893) ; Saibset, ft. B., sa rie et eon aeuvre in Revue des deux mondes, XXXIV (1861), .361-9i; Idem, Pricurseurs el disciples de Descartes (Paris, 1862) ; Salembier, Une page inedite de I'hist. de la Vulgate (Amiens, 1890); BcHNEiDEK, ft. B., eine Monographie als Beitrag zur Gesch. der Philos. des 13. Jahrh. aus den Quellen (Augsburg, 1873); SlEBERT, ft. B., sein Leben u. seine Philos. (Marburg, 1861); Stahhahn, Das opus maius des ft. B. nach seinem Inhalt u. seiner Bedeutung f. d. WiHScnschtift betrachlel in Kirchl. MoruUsschr., XII (1H93J, 276-86; Strunz, Gesch. der Naturwissenschaften im MiUelaUer fStutt(jart, 1910), 9.3-99; Ubald, Franciscan England in the Past in Franciscan Annals, XXXIII (1908), 369-71; XXXIV fMKW), 11-14; Valdarnini, Esperienza e ragionamento in ft. B. (Rome, 1896);, Disserlazioni accademiche di vario argumrrUo (Rome, 1864); VooL, Die Physik ft. B.'s (Erlangen, 1906;; Werner, Kosmologie u. allgem. Naturlehre ft. B.'s Psychol., Erkenntniss- u. Wissenschaftslehre des ft. B. in SUzungnber. der k. k. Aka>l. d. W.. XCIII (Vienna), 467-576; XCIV. 489-fJ12; Witheford. Bacon as an Interpreter of Holy ScrifAure in Expositor (1897), .349-fiO; Wulf (de). Hist, de la philoi. miditvale (2nd ed., \A>\xvB.\n, 1905), 419-27.

Theophilds Witzel.

Roger Cadwallador, Ve.nerable, English mar- tyr, b. at Stretton lSugwa.s, near Ilerefonl, in 1508; executed at Iy<'orriiri.ster, 27 Aug., 1010. He was or- dained Kubdea<;on at lleirn.s, 21 Sept., 1591, and deacfjn the following February, and in Aug., 1.502, was wrnt to the P^nglish 0)llege at Valladolid, where he waa ordained priest. Returning to England in 1594, he laboured in HercfordHhire with good success espe-

cially among the poor for about sixteen years. Search was made for him in June, 1605, but it was not till Easter, 1610, that he was arrested at the house of Mrs. Winefride Scroope, widow, within eight miles of Hereford. He was then brought before the Bishop, Dr. Robert Bennet, who committed him to Hereford gaol where he was loaded with irons night and day. On being transferred to Leominster gaol he was obliged to walk all the way in shackles, though a boy was per- mitted to go by his side and bear up by a string the weight of some iron links which were wired to the shackles. On his arrival he was treated with the greatest inhumanity by his gaoler. He was con- demned, merely for being a priest, some months before he suffered. A very full account of his sufferings in prison and of his martyrdom is given by Challoner. He hung very long, suffering great pain, owing to the unskilfulness of the hangman, and was eventually cut down and butchered alive. Pits praises his great knowledge of Greek, from which he translated Theo- doret's "Philotheus, or the lives of the Fathers of the Syrian deserts"; but it does not appear when or where this translation was published.

Challoner, Missionary Priests, II, no. 147; Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath., I, 369; Cooper in Diet. Nat. Biogr., s. v. Cadwalladob, Roger; Calendar State Papers, Dom., 1G03~10 (London, 1857), 224, 225, 601. JqhN B. WaINEWRIGHT.

Roger James, Blessed. See Richard Whiting, Blessed.

Roger of Hoveden, chronicler, was probably a native of Hoveden, or, as it is now called, Howden, in Yorkshire. From the fact that his chronicle ends rather abruptly in 1201 it is inferred that he must have died or been stricken with some mortal disease in that year. He was certainly a man of importance in his day. He was a king's clerk {clericus regis) in the time of Henry H, and seems to have been at- tached to the court as early as 1173, while he was also despatched on confidential missions, as for example to the chiefs of Galloway in 1174. In 1189 he served as an itinerant justice in the north, but he probably retired from public life after the death of Henry 11, and it has been suggested that he became parish priest of his native village, Howden, devoting the rest of his life to the compilation of his chronicle. Like most other historical writings of that date the earlier portion of his work is little more than a tran- script of some one narrative to which he had more convenient access or which he considered specially worthy of (lonfidence. His authority from 732 down to 1154 was an abstract, still extant in manuscript, "Historia Saxonum vel Anglorum post obitum Beda)". From 1154 to 1192 he uses his authorities much more freely, basing his narrative upon the well- known "Gesta llcnrici", commonly attributed to Benedict of Peterborough. But from 1192 to 1201 his work is all his own, and of th(i highc^st value. Hoveden had a great appreciation of the importance of documentary evidence, and we should be very ill informed regarding the political history of the last quarter of the twelfth century if it were not for the state papers, etc., which Hov(;(l(!n inserts and of which, no doubt, his earlier connexion with the chancery and its officials enabled him to obtain copies.

As a (chronicler, he was impartial and accurate. His profoundly religious character made him some- what cre<lulous, but there is no reason, as even his editor, Bishop Stwbbs, admits, to regard him on that account as an untrustworthy authority.

The one reliable edition of ifoveden is that prepared by Htitiius for the Rolls Siries in four vols., 186H-71. A full account of Hoveden and his works is given in the preface to these vols.

Hekbekt Thurston.

Roger of Wendover, a Benedictine monk, date of birth unknown; d. 12:50, the first of the great chron- iclers of St. Albans Abbey. He sciems to have been a native of Wendover in Buckinghamshire and must