upon the use of petroleum and heavy oils as fuels, where he was also a leader in one of the prominent movements of the present day, the use of crude petroleum as fuel for the production of steam.
Many of his memoirs are published in the "Comp- tes rendues" and "Annales". Among his works we may cite: "De I'aluminium, ses propri6tes, sa fabrication" (Paris, 1859); "Metallurgie du platine et des metaux qui I'accompagnent" (Paris, 1863).
G.\y, Henri St. Claire-Deville, sa vie et ses travaux (Paris, 1889); VapereaU, Diclionnaire universel des contemporains; Poooen- DORFF, Biographisches literarisches Handworlerbuch, III (1898), 2.
T. O'CoNOR Sloane.
Saint Edmund, College of. See Old Hall.
Sainte- Genevieve, Abbey of, in Paris, was founded by King Clovis who established there a college of clerics, later called canons regular. How long these clerics observed the regular life is unknown, but in 1147 secular canons officiated in the church. King Louis VH and Pope Eugene HI, having wit- nessed some disorders, determined to restore the regular discipline and at first thought to call monks, but as the canons preferred some of their own order, the pope consented. At the request of Sugerus and St. Bernard, Gildwin, the first Abbot of St-Victor's, where the canoni-
"I n- i B I
cal rule had been recently estab- lished, consented to send Odo, the Prior of his ab- bey. There were difficulties, but order finally pre- vailed and some of the canons joined the reform. .\niong these was the young Canon William, already known for his vir- tues and learning. At the request of Al)s;d()n, Hi.shop (.fRoskild.in Den- mark, who when a student at Ste- ( ienevieve's had known him, Wil- liam was sent to that country to r(>form a monas- tery of canons in the Isle of Eskil. In spite of untold trials, obstacles, and persecutions he succeeded in his enterprise and even founded another monastery, which he dedicated to the Holy Paraclete. He died in 1206, and was canonized by Honorius III. It was natural that clo.se relations should exist between Ste-Genevieve's and its founda- tions in Denmark. Peter, a young man who made his profession at the abbey, became Bishop of Ros- kild; Valdemar, brother of King Knut, died at Ste- Genevieve's; and Abbot Stephen of Tournai wrote to William and his friends to obtain lead for the roof of his abbey.
Like the Abbey of St- Victor, Ste-Genevieve's became a celebrated seat of learning. St-Victor's, Ste-Gene- vieve's, and Notre-Dame were the cradle of the Uni- versity of Paris. Abelard at different epochs lectured in this abbey-school. By right and custom the two sister-abbeys frequently exchanged subjects. Peter de Ferriere, Abbot of St-Victor's, was at one time prior of Epinay, a priory of Ste-Genevieve's ; William of
Tower and Court, Abbey of Ste-
Now the Lyc6e Henri-IV
Auxerre, a professed canon of St-Victor's in 1254, held the office of cellarer, and became Abbot of Ste- Genevieve's; and Marcel, successively canon at St- Victor's and Ste-Genevieve's, was in 1198 made Abbot of Cisoing. Like most religious houses, this abbey, falhng into the hands of abbots in commendam, re- laxation and disorders were the consequence. In the beginning of the seventeenth century Cardinal de La Rochefoucauld undertook its reform. He brought from Senlis a holy man, Charles Faure, who had al- ready restored the canonical rule in the ancient Abbey of Silvanect. Once more the Rule of St. Augustine was faithfully observed at Ste-Genevieve's, which be- came the mother-house of the Gallican congregation. Charles Faure died in 1644. The second spring of the abbey was perhaps even more glorious than the first. Bj' the middle of the seventeenth century the abbot- general of the congregation had under his jurisdic- tion more than one hundred abbeys and priories. Men like Fronteau, chancellor of the university and author of many works, Laleman, Chapponel, Reginier, Chengot, Beurier, du Moulinet, founder of the na- tional library, and Augustine Hay, a Scotchman who wrote the "Scotia sacra" and officiated at Holyrood, Scotland, in 1687, were sons of the French congre- gation. When in 1790 the revolutionary assembly declared all religious vows void, and opened the doors to all the inmates of the monasteries, there were thirty-nine canons at Ste-Genevieve's. This was the end of that illustrious abbey and school.
Bo.VNARD, Histoire de I'abbaye de St-Victor de Paris (1907); Gautier, Adam de St-Victor (Paris, 18.58); Marion, Histoire de VEglise (Paris, 1908); Vuillemin, Vie de S. Pierre Fourier (Paris, 1897).
Sainte-Marthe, Scevole and Louis. See Gal- lia Christiana.
Saintes, Ancient See of. See La Rochelle, Diocese of.
Saint-Flour, Diocese of (Floropolis), com- prises the Department of Cantal, and is suffragan of the Archbishopric of Bourges. Re-established by the Concordat of 1802, by which the Department of Haute-Loire was brought into this diocese, this de- partment was detached from it in 1823 by the re- establishment of the See of Le Puy. The traditions relative to St. Florus (Flour), who is said to have been the first Bishop of Locleve and to have died at Indiciat (later Saint-Flour) while evangelizing Haute-Auvergne, have been the subject of numerous discussions. In two documents concerning the foundation of the second monastery of St-Flour, drawn up in 1013 and 1031, and in a letter written to Urban IV in 1261 by Pierre de Saint-Haon, prior of Saint-Flour, St. Flour is already considered as be- longing to the Apostolic times, and the "Speculum sanctorale" of Bernard Gui in 1329 relates at length the legend of this "disciple of Christ". M. Marcellin Boudet believes it more likely that St. Flour lived in the fifth century, and that it was he who attended the Council of Aries in 450 or 451.
At the close of the tenth century there was already a monastery at Indiciat. A local seigneur, Astorg de Bre- zons, surnamed "the Red Bull", gave this monastery to Odilo, Abbot of Cluny, and the donation was con- firmed by Gregory V (996-99). Amblard de Brezons, his nephew, surnamed "le Mai Hiverne", seized the monastery and destroyed all of it except the church. Amblard and Astorg, from 1010 to 1013, gave this church and its fief to St. Peter's at Rome, together with the monastery of Sauxillages, governed by Odilo; but later Amblard considered this donation as void, and constructed a fortress, a remnant of which is now the sacristy of the cathedral, upon the site of the old monastery ; afterwards Amblard, seized with remorse at Rome, between 1025 and 1031 gave back