Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 13.djvu/428

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in the Archdiocese of Montreal. Since 1S66 the so- ciety has gradually abandoned the administration of its parishes in Montreal, at present retaining only those of Notre-Dame and Saint-Jacques in the city and that of Oka in the diocese. That it does not, nevertheless, stand aloof from any of the great under- takings in the city which it founded is manifested by the Laval University and the pubhc library.

Separated from Saint-Sulpice as regards material possessions, the Montreal community maintains its spiritual alliance with Paris. The superior-gener-al or his representative makes periodically the canonical visitation of the Canadian houses. They are governed by a superior elected every five years, who is assisted by a council of twelve, four of whom, called assistants, are his habitual advisers.

As will be readily perceived the principal Sulpician work in both France and America is that of seminaries. The Sulpician is either the model of the pastor in the ministry- or the trainer of the priest within the semi- naries. His manner of life has been described above; his instruction and method will here be treated briefly. The sole directing principle of the studies at Saint- Sulpice is the most filial docility of judgment and will towards the pope, not only when he defines, but when he expresses a preference or gives directions and coun- sels. Mindful of their responsibihty for priestly souls the Sulpicians teach their pupils, not the novelty which Tnay send them astray, nor their personal opin- ions which have no guarantee of certitude, but the truth stamped with the seal of the Church and issuing thence warranted and authentic. In Holy Scripture they treat the books they explain as Divine books, avoiding the exaggerations of critical research and abiding by the interpretation of the text. In dog- matic theology they set forth the truth, at the same time warning their pupils against Rationalistic and Modernistic theories and minimizing insinuations. In apologetics they follow the historical method; in philosophy they recognize no master save St. Thomas.

Although the kind of instruction given at Saint- Suljjice tends to produce men whose knowledge is more solid than brilliant, more deep than extensive, there has been no lack of remarkable professors in any branch of ecclesiastical learning. Out of the seven hundred and thirty members which the socic^ty had numbered down to 1790 no less than one hundred and fifteen had secured their doctor's degree at the Sor- bonne. Doctrine is surely more valuable than learn- ing, and no book written by a Sulpician has ever been placed on the Index. Among the theologians were: Delafosse (1701-4.5) and de Montaigne (1(^7-1767), who wrote remarkable dogmatic treatises published in the theology of Honore Tournely; Legranrl (1711-S7), as famous for his flogmat ic writ ings as for his refutation of thf j)hilosophical errors of his time; Rey and Rony, authors of valuable treatises published at Lyons; Peala (1787-18.53), the continuator of the ecclesiastical con- ferences of Le Puy; Vioussc (1784-18.57), author of the "CompendiosED institutiones theological " of Toulouse; Carriftre (179.5-1864), author of authoritative trea- tises on marriage, contracts, justice, etc.; Vincent (1813-69), author of the so-called "Clermont Theol- ORV". De Lantages (1616-94) and De la Ch<'>tardye (1634-1714) wrote justly-esteemed catechisms and conversations or t'oclr-siastical instructions. Among the Sulpicians whosf works were addressed to the general faithful wfre Hlanlo (1617-57), author of "En- fance chr/;tienne"; Guisain (1627-82), author of the " Sagos fntrctiens" of a soul desirous of salvation; La- sausse (1740-1826), author of many works of piety; namf>n (179.5-1874), whose "Mr'ditationH"arf' much used; Hiche (1824-92), author of wr)rks intf-nrlcd lf> assist piety. Among those who had chiefly in view the perfection of the ch-rgy were, after Oher himsolf, M. Tronson (1622- 1700), "whose "Examens particuliers"

is a masterpiece of spiritual psychology and whose "Forma clcri", treatise on obedience, and other- works are useful to the clergy; Fyot de Vaugimois (16S9-175S), who wrote "Conversations with Jesus Christ before and after Mass" (1721), very popular at that time, and a host of other works for the sancti- fication of priests; Boyer (1768-1842), the author of ecclesiastical retreats; Vernet (1760-1843), who wrote many works to enhven the piety of religious and priests, such as the "Nepotien"; Hamon (1795- 1870), the biographer of Cardinal Cheverus and St. Francis de Sales; Calais (1802-54), "Le bon semina- riste" (1839); Renaudet (1794-1880), wrote various works on asceticism, also meditations; Gamon (1813- 86), author of the lives of holy priests; Bacuez (1820- 92), "Manuel du seminariste en vacances".

Among the scholars and learned men in various branches were: Laurent-Josse Le Clerc (1677-1736), historian, theologian, controversialist, and author of the "Bibliotheque de Richelet" (1727), of a "Lettre critique sur le Dictionnaire de Bayle" (1731), and of various and learned writings; Grandet (1646-1724), who wrote "Les saints pretres fran^ais du XVIIe si4- cle", and numerous historical or devotional works; Emery (q. v.); Gosselin (1787-1858), who pubhshed the life and works of Fenelon, and wrote numerous historical works; Le Hir (1811-68), one of the most learned Hebrew scholars of the nineteenth century; Pinault (1793-1870), who composed remarkable physi- cal and mathematical treatises; Faillon (1800-70), author of the lives of de Lantages and Olier, of "Monuments incdits sur I'apostolat de Marie-Made- leine en Provence", and of numerous historical works on Canada and Montreal; Moyen (1828-99), who compiled a "Flora of Canada" and various scientific works; Grandvaux (1819-85), who published Le Hir's works after his death, and was verj^ learned in all branches of ecclesiastical knowledge; Richou (1823-87), noted for his works on church history and Scripture; Brugere (1823-88), a theologian and his- torian of wide knowledge; Icard (1805-93), known for his writings on catechisms, canon law, and various spiritual subjects. To these names must be added those of Caron (1779-1850), a liturgist, who pub- lished the "Manuel de ceremonies selon le rit de Paris" (1846); Parisis (1724-81); and Manier (1807- 71), who issued philosophical courses.

Gosselin, Vie de M. Emery (Paris, 1861), Introduction, 1-102; Icard, Traditions de la compagnie des pritres de Saint-Sulpice (Paris, 1880); Bertrand, Biblinthtgue sulpicicnnc ou Hisloire litteraire de la comp. de Saint-Sulpice (Paris, 1900); Bulletin trimeslriel des anciens Hives de Saint-Sulpice (l.s'.Hi- 1911); Memorial volume of the centenary of St. Mnrij'x Simiitnry of Sl- Sulpice (Baltimore, 1891); Golden Jubilee of SI. (li<irlr.-<' College (Baltimore, 1898); Shea, History of the Catholic Church in the United States (New York. 1886-92).


Saints Vincent and Anastasius (Trium Fon- TiuM AD A(ii'As Salvia.s, Tue Fontane, or Three Fountains), Abbey of, near Rome. Connected with, and belonging to the monastery are three separate sanctuaries. The first, the Church of St. Paul of Three Fountains, was raised over the spot wh(!re St. Paul was beheaded by order of Nero. Legend says that the head, severed from the body, rebounded, striking the earth in three different places, from which fountains sprang forth, flowing to the present day, and located within the sanctuary itself. The second, originally dedicated to the lilcssed Virgin, under the title "Our Lady of M:irtyrs", is built over the relics of St. Zeno and his 10,203 legionaries, who were, martyred here at the order of l)iocl<!)ian, in 299. In this church is the altar "Sc.'da Cfcli", from which the church receives its present name. Within is the church and monastery cledicated to Sts. Vincent and Anastasius, built by Pojie Honorius I in 626, and given to the Bene- dictines, who were to care for the two older sanc- tuaries, as well as their own church. The abbey was