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SANDYS


439


SAN FRANCISCO


dictory teachings of the many Christian denomina- tions which tried to establish their respective creeds on the ruins of that of their rivals; the wrong prin- ciples of an education which instructs the mind but neglects the heart; the absence of the spiritual aids and remedies of which the Church is the dispenser, to regulate irregular desires of the heart; all these causes combined to produce one dire result, namely, the gradual extinction of the Hawaiian race.

In matters relating to education the Catholic mis- sion of Hawaii has not been inactive. From the very start it established, wherever feasible, independent schools in charge, or under the supervision, of the priest. In 1859 the Sisters of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary arrived at Honolulu to take charge of a boarding and day-school for girls, which has developed into an institution with 36 sisters, 66 boarders, 125 day-scholars who pay, and 420 in the free department. In 1883-84 the Brothers of Mary, from Dayton, Ohio, took charge of three schools for boys: St. Louis's College at Honolulu, St. Mary's School at Hilo, and St. Anthony's School at Wailuku. The day-schools for girls at Wailuku and Hilo are in charge of the Franciscan Sisters from SjTacusc, New York. The latest addition to the educational work is the new boarding and daj^-school for girls at Kaimuki, and the Cathohe orphanage at Kahhi. Besides the work of education the Catholic mis- sion has had also a great share in the work for the lepers. In order to stop the spread of this loath- some disease, the Hawaiian Government established a settlement for the lepers on the Island of Molokai (see Molokai; Damien).

Bishop Maigret was succeeded in 1882 by the Rt. Rev. Hermann Koeckemann, under whose administra- tion the mission received a considerable increase by the immigration of Portuguese imported from the Azores as labourers for the plantations. They are now spread all over the islands, and there is hardly a church where the priests are not obliged to use the Portuguese language besides the English and Hawai- ian. There are to be found also a number of Porto Ricans, some Poles, a few Italians, some Spaniards, a number of FiUpinos, and a small numVjcr of Catho- lics of other nationalities. Hishoj) Kockemann died 22 Feb., 1892, and was succeeded in that year by the Rt. Rev. (Julstan Ropert, who died 5 Jan., 1903. The present incumbent, Rt. Rev. Libert Hubert Boeynaems, was consecrated 25 July, 1903. There are (1911) 35 priests of religious orders in the vica- riate, 30 churches, and 55 chapels. The Catholic population Is 35,000. There are 4 academies, a college, and 9 parochial schools established by the mission, and the total number of pupUs is 2200.

PlOLET, Les Missions Catholiques FrariQaises au XIX' sihcle (Paris, 1802), IV, 1-33; Michels, Die Viilker des Sudsees, u. die Gesch. von den protestantischen v. katholischen Missionen; etc. (Miinster, 1847) ; Molhane, The Church in the Sandwich Islands in Catholic World, LXIII (New York, 1896), 641; Marshall, Christian Missions (London, 1862); Annah of the Propagation of the Faith, Catholic Missions, passim; Clinch, Hawaii and its Missionaries in Amer. Calh. Quarterly Review, XIX (Philadelphia, 1894), 139; Hist, of the Catholic Religion in the Sandwich Islands, 1829-40 (Honolulu, 1840, reprinted San Francisco, 1907); Blackman, The Making of Hawaii (London, 1906); Alexander, A Brief Hist, of the Hawaiian People (New York, 1891-99).

James C. Beissel.

Sandys, John, Venerable, English martyr, b. in the Diocese of Chester; executed at Gloucester, 11 August, 1586. He arrived at Reims 4 June, 1.583, was ordained priest in the Holy Cross Chapel of Reims Cathedral by the Cardinal Archbishop, Louis de Guise, and was sent on the mission 2 October, 1584. He was cut down while fully conscious and had a terrible struggle with the executioner, who had black- ened his face to avoid recognition and used a rusty and ragged knife; but his last words were a prayer for his persecutors.

Pollen, Acts of the English Martyrs (London, 1891), 333, 336,


337; Knox, Douay Diaries (London, 1878); Challoner, Mis- sionary Priests, I (Edinburgh, 1877), no. 38.

John B. Wainewright.

Sanetch Indians, a sub-tribe of the Songish In- dians (q. v.). They speak a dialect of the Cowichan language of Salishan linguistic stock, and occupy sev- eral small reserves about Saanich Peninsula at the south-we.st point of Vancouver Island, B. C. They were estimated at 600 in 1858, but are nnluced now to about 250. In primitive customs and beliefs they resemble the Songish. The work of Christianiza- tion was begun among them in 1843 by Father John B. Bolduc and completed by the Oblate Fathers. The whole tribe is now entirely civilized and Cathohe, engaged in farming, fishing, and various other paid employrnents, and are described by their agent as "industrious and law-abiding, fairly temperate, and moral".

Morice, Hist. Catholic Church in Western Canada (Toronto, 1910); Dept. of Ind. Affairs (Canada), annual reports (Ottawa); Wilson, Tribes of Forty-ninth Parallel in Trans. Ethnol. Soc. London, new series, IV (London, 1866).

James Mooney.

San Francisco, Archdiocese of (Sancti Fran- cisci), established 29 July, 1853 to include the Counties of San Francisco, San Mateo, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Sonoma, Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and those portions of Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, and Merced lying north of 37° 5' N. lat. in the State of California, U. S. A.; an area of 16,856 square miles. Its suflfragans are: the Diocese of Monterey and Los Angeles, and the Dio- cese of Sacramento, in California; and the Diocese of Salt Lake, which comprises the State of Utah and six counties of the State of Nevada; the province includ- ing the States of California and Nevada and all the territory east to the Rio Colorado.

All CaUfornia — Lower, or Old California, and Upper, or the present state — was originally under Spanish and Mcxic.-in jurisdiction, and later formed the Dio- cese of Both Californias, of which the Right Reverend Francisco ( J;ircia Diego y Moreno was tlie first bishop. The Franciscans wlio landed witli Cortes at Santa Cruz Bay on 3 May, 1535 b(>gan the first mission work, under the leadership of Father Martin de la Coruna. Their labours in tliis field, and tho.se of the Jesuits who followed tlieni half a century later, are de- tailed in a s])eci;il article devoted to that topic (see California Missions). Portola discovered the pres- ent San Francisco Bay 1 Nov., 1769, and as one of the chain of missions projected by Father Junipero Serra, the mission of San Francisco de Asis, called also the Mission Dolores, was founded 9 Oct., 1776 by his two Franciscan brethren Fathers Francisco Palou and Benito Cambon, both natives of Spain. Under the fostering care of the Franciscans the mission pros- pered without interruption for more than half a cen- tury. Then came the secularization and phnuler of the California missions by the Mexican Government in 1834, and San Francisco suffered ruin with the others. The village of Verba Buena was established on its site, and colonization invited by the civil au- thorities. Some outside trading was done, and a few ships entered the harbour. In the midsummer of 1846, a man-of-war took possession of the place in the name of the United States, and on 30 Jan. of the fol- lowing year the name of the town Verba Buena was changed to San Francisco. Gold was discovered in the spring of 1848, and with this came the thou.sands of fortune-hunters of all nations and the beginning of of the city as a great centre of commerce (see Cali- fornia).

Previous to this the Holy See had established the Diocese of Both Californias, suffragan to the Arch- bishop of Mexico, and appointed as its bishop, on 27 April, 1840, Father Francis Garcia Diego y Moreno,