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constructed in the wall, leads from the crypt to the cathedral properly so called, to which the cloister of the old abbey serves as vestibule, opening on the principal street (Rua Mayor) of the city. The church itself, exclusive of the capilla mayor, is formed of three naves of unequal height, 1283^ feet in length, and SOj feet in width. In the choir is buried the abbot, Pedro Luis Manso y Luniga (d. 1669), who had it built. In a corner of the nave on the Gospel side is a holy-water font of Arabic workmanship, probably brought as a memorial of the conquest from C6rdoba where it served as a basin for ablutions; it bears a ver>' poetical Arabic inscription, which has been translated by Don Pascual Gayangos. The capilla mayor, or principal chapel, was built late in the seventeenth century by Abbot Manuel Francisco de Navarrete y Ladr6n de Guevara (1695-1705). The relics of the martyrs Sts. Hemeterius and Cele- donius are kept in the high altar. On the south is a cloister which long served as a cemetery; and in the south-eastern corner was the Chapel of the Holy Ghost, the last remains of the hospice founded by Abbot Nuno P6rez Monroy, counsellor to Dona Maria de Molina in the distracted reigns of Fernando IV and Alfonso XL

The other parishes of Santander are: San Francisco, an ancient convent of the Friars Minor, facing on the Plaza de Becedo; Consolaci6n; the parish of the Society of Jesus, connected with the old Jesuit col- lege; the newparish of Santa Lucia. Among the benev- olent institutions are: the civil and militarv hospital of San Rafael, built in 1791 by Rafael Tomds Menendez de Luarca; the House of Charity; the Asylum of San Jos6, for the education of poor boys; the Casa Cuna (foundling hospital); the provincial inclusa (foundling a.sylum), founded in 1778 by Bishop Francisco Laso de San Pedro. The intermediate school. Institute de Scgunda Ensenanza, has been established in the old convent of the nuns of St. Clare since 1839; and the ecclesiastical seminary since 1852 in the monasterj^ of Santa Cat alinade Monte Corbdn, formerly Hieronymite, a short distance from the city. There is also the pontifical seminary of Comillas, founded by Antonio Lopez, Marques de Comillas, placed under the care of the Jesuit Fathers, and raised to the rank of a pontifical university. The distinguished men whom this diocese has produced are numberless; among them may be mentioned: St. Beatus of Liebana, Fray Antonio de Guevara, Juan de Herrera, Amador de los Rios, and Pereda.

Florez, Esp. saqrada. XXVII (2ncl ed., Madrid, 1824); Amador de los Rios, Santander. Espaila. sus monumentoa (Barcelona, 1891); Mariana, /list. gen. de Esp. (Valencia, 1794).

Ramon Ruiz Amado.

Sant' Angelo de' Lombardi, Diocese of (Sancti Angeli LoMnARDORUM ET Bis.\cciENSis), in the Prov- ince of Avellino, Southern Italy. The city w'as estab- lished by the Lombards at an unknown period. There are sulphurous springs in its vicinity. In 1664 it was almost completely dcstroNcd. It became an episcopal see under (jregory Vll, but its first known bishop is Thomas, in 1 1 79, when the see was a suffragan of Conza. In 1540 under the episcopate of Rinaldo de' Cancel- lieri, it was united to the Diocese of Bisaccia (the an- cient Romulea), a Samnite town captured by the Ro- mans in 295 B. c; it appears first as a bishopric in 1179. Another of its prelates, Ignazio Cianti, O.P. (1646), was distinguished for his learning. In 1818 it was incorporated with the See of Monteverde, the earliest known bishop of which is Mario (1049), and which in 1531 was united to the Archdiocese of Canne and Nazareth, from which it has been again separated. The see contains 9 parishes with 40,000 souls, 45 secu- lar priests, and some religious, 3 monastic establish- ments, and a girls' school.

Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia, XX (Venice, 18.57).

U. Benigni.

Sant' Angelo in Vado and Urbania, Dio- cese OF (Sancti Angeli in Vado et Urbaniensis). S. Angelo in Vado is a city in the Marches, on the site of the ancient "Tifernum Metaurense", a town of the Umbrian Senones, near the River Metaurus, believed to have been destroyed by the Goths. Later there arose a new burg called, from the Church of S. Michele, Sant' Angelo in Vado, which in 1635 became a city and an epis- copal see. Urbania is situated on the River Can- diano near S. Angelo, on the site of the ancient Aleria, considerable ruins of which still remain. It was destroyed at an unknown date, and rebuilt under the name of Castel Ripeggiano, but, in 1280, being in favour of the Guelphs it was demolished by the Ghi- bellines. It was restored again through the munifi- cence of the Dominican bishop, Guglielmo Durante, and called Castel Durante; it was included in the Duchy of Urbino, and contained a magnificent ducal palace. It is uncertain whether the Tifernate bishops Eubodius (Euhodius?), Marius, and Innocent, who as- sisted at the Roman Councils of 465, 499, and 500, belonged to Tifernum Tiberiacum (Citta di Castello) or to S. Angelo. At the beginning of 1635 S. Angelo was an archpresbyterate nullius, subject to the Abbot of the Monastery of S. Cristoforo of Castel Durante, to whom the Archpresbyterate of Castel Durante was also subject. In that year Urban VIII erected the two towns into dioceses, changing the name of Castel Durante to Urbania, and uniting them o'que principalitcr under Onorato degli Onorati, who gov- erned it for forty-eight years. Other bishops were : Gian. Vincenzo Castelli, O.P. (1711), who restored the cathe- dral of LTrbania, and Paolo Zamperoli, O.P. (1779), sent into exile under Napoleon, dying there. The dio- cese is a suffragan of Urbino, and has 78 parishes with about 20,000 souls, a Capuchin convent, and 8 houses of nuns.

Cappelletti, Le chiese d' Italia, III (Venice, 18.57).

U. Benigni.

Santarem, Prelature nullius of, created in 1903, in the (■(•clcsiastical Province of Belem do Pard, with a Catholic i)oi)ulation of 200,000. The present bishop is Rt. Rev. Armando Bahlmann, titular Bishop of Argos, b. 8 May, 1862, appointed 10 Jan., 1907, consecrated 19 July, 1908. The residence of the bishop is at Santarem, State of Pard, created a city by law of 24 Oct., 1848. It is beautifully situated on the north- ern shores of the Tapajos River, and has a popula- tion of 28,000. The city is divided into four parishes: Santarem, Alter do Chao, Boim, and Villa Franca. The monastery of the Franciscan friars, who have charge of the missions of the prelature, is located also in Santarem. In this town, the government of the State of Pard. supplies the necessary funds for a school of over 200 pupils; there are also 3 colleges for boys, 2 for girls, and 1 for boys and girls.

Julian Moreno-Lacalle.

Santa Rufina. See Porto and Santa-Rufina, Diocese of.

Santa Severina, Archdiocese of (Sanct.e Seve- riNvE), in the Province of Catanzaro in Calabria, Southern Italy. Situated on a rocky precipice on the site of the ancient Siberena, it became an important fortress of the Byzantines in their struggles with the Saracens. It is not known whether it was an epis- copal see from the beginning of the Byzantine domi- nation; when it became an archbishopric, probably in the tenth century, its suffragan sees were Orea, Acer- enza, Gallipoli, Alessano, and Castro. The Greek Rite disappeared from the diocese under the Normans, but was retained in the cathedral during a great part of the thirteenth century. The earliest known bishop was one Giovanni, but his date is uncertain. P>om 1096, when the name of Bishop Stef ano is recorded, the