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18 July, 1913| to succeed Rt. Rev. Adolfo P^rea benefices or canonries (even honorary) in the cathe- y MunoE, transferred to Badajoz the same day. dral or collegiate churches — ^a right now belonging

By 1920 statistics these islands count a Catholic to the bishop, all contrary customs being reprobated population of 150,052, 50 Protestants, 8 Jews, and and contrary privileges being revoked (this modifies 23 other faiths; 53 parishes divided among 5 arch- C. E., III-253c). The Holy See does not now re- priests and 139 priests, 46 churches, 67 chapels and serve the collation of benefices rendered vacant in 15 convents with 34 religious and 194 SLSters. special months. He must obtain the consent of

  1. ««-j«. TN^ /i-1 -X /^ w tne chapter: to revive extinct dignities or to in-

TTf ISz^ .P^ ^^ ij^^^^fi^K ^' /?• F** crease tte number of canonical or beneficial pre- m-244d), on the Greek Mand of Crete or Candia, y^^^^ ^^ to alienate ecclesiastical property valued miffrapn of Smyrna. This sjicient see was r^ab- between 1,000 and 30,000 francs, or to lease the bflhed under Its prraent status, as a Latm See, 21 ^^^ f^^ ^^^j. j^^ yg^rs; but he does not require December, 1874. The bishop read^ in the citv of ^Yieii consent or counsel to appoint a special feast Candia, on the north shore of the island. The ^ ^^ ^ particular occasion. A canon must make present mcumbent is Rt. Rev. Francesco GiiMeppe hig prof esaon of faith in presence of the local ordi- Semmara, b. m Gangi, Sicily, 1863, entered the ^^ ^^ y^ delegate and the chapter, before taking

S"*!?:^^!.?*^."*'**^^^^^'^'^^^^^,^^^!,*?*.*^*.*^ poraession of his benefice (no fixed time is now Candia Mission 1896, made apostolic administrator J^entioned as in C. E., III-254a); if he negligently of the mission 2 April, 1908. and appomted bwhop ^^^^ ^^^ j^^ -^ to be warned, and if after a 22 June, 1910, succeeding Bishop Canavo, retired, reasonable time he fails to carry out his obligation ^e diocese counte only 800 Catholics, against y^^ ^ ^^ ^f contumacy and may be deprived ^^' J /JSSJf'? and Schifflnatiw. ^ The mission is ^f his benefice; in the meantime he is not to re- served (1^) by 7 Capuchin missionaries, 5 Broth- ^^^^ ^^^ income. Canons are obliged to take the ers, 17 Sisters of St. Joseph of the Appantion, 3 anti-Modernist oath, are not exempt eo ipso from Mrishes, 8 churches and chapels, 6 schTOls with 26^ the yearly examinations in clerical sciences pre- children, 3 secondary schools with 180 students, and g^j^bed for priests in the three years following the 1 orphanage with 12 orphans. completion of their studies. Canonries should be OanaloB and Macas, Vicariate Apostolic of conferred only on pri^ noted for virtue and (Equatbub Orientalis; cf. C. E., in-249c), one of learning. Bishops should take into account the re- the four vicariates of Eastern Ecuador, South suits obtamed m the exammatioM just referred to. America. This territory, entrusted to the Domin- Other things being equal, a preference should be icans, is at present (1922) under the administration given to doctors of theology or canon law or to of Rev. Enrique * Vacas-Galindo, and comprises a those who have worked successfully either m semi- Catholic population of 200,000. No statistics of the nary or in the cure of souls.

vicariate are published. ^ , . ^. ^ „ »»x «^. x /^i. .u

^ M s ^ » ^ ^ , ^, ,, , , Oanonesses Eegnlar (cf. C. E., ra-296b).--Of the

uaauiiu uouege, Buffalo, New York, was opened older congregations of canonesses only a few com- by the Fathers of the Society of Jesus in Septem- munities remain. In Italy, France, and Spain they ber, 1870. On 27 April, 1872, the feast of Bl. Peter have suffered severe losses through political diffi- Canisius, patron of the new institution, the first culties but are found in a flourishing condition in corner-stone was laid by the Rt. Rev. Bishop ^hg communities of Bruges, Belgium, Hayward's Stephen V. Ryan, D.D. In 1911 the erection of Heath, Newton Abbot, and Hoddesdon, England, a new building was begim and on 6 January, 1913, ^he two first named have gained a well merited the four college classes were transferred to this reputation for their educational work. The latter building, leaving the original building for the high j^^ve maintained perpetual adoration for about school, which is conducted in connection with the geventy years. The well known community of Eng- college. This high school and the academic de- jj^jj Canonesses of Neuilly are now well established partmenta were added to the college upon the ^^j^ ^n excellent school at Ealing. All these rank amendment of the charter to include them, on 25 under the designation of Canonesses Regular of October, 1906. The educational system followed is ^y^^ Lateran.

substantially that of all colleges conducted by the jhe Canonesses Regular of St. Augustine, of the Society of Jesus based on the "Ratio Studiorum Congregation of Notre Dame, founded by St. Peter Societatis Jesu," a system outlined by the most poumier possess houses spread over France, Bel- prominent Jesuit educators in 1599 and revised in gj^^j^ England, Holland, Italy, Luxemburg, Ger- 1832. many, Hungary, and Brazil. Each community num-

The faculty library comprises about 10,000 i^ers between forty and one hundred members volumes, the students' library 4,000, and there is a divided into choir sisters, lay sisters, and tourieres. scientific reference library of 2,000. Since January, The choir sisters take a fourth vow binding them 1916, the Canisius seismological observatory has be- iq i\^q institution. They sing ofl&ce in choir and come one of two hundred stations co-operating with ^^^ enclosed

the United States Weather Bureau, Df Partment of Canonbssbs Rboulab of thh Holy Sepulchrb Seismology. , The college possesses valuable coUec- (ef. a E.rm[-427a). Due to the zeal of Jean Van tions of minerals and, numerous biological and ^^'^^Sroe'ek, first Prior of Ste Odile, and restorer floral specimens as well as the Ottomar Remecke ^f thfS of the Holy Sepulchre in Lower Ger- collection of coleoptero and many famous manu- ^^^ Jhe Canoneies Regu£r were established in

^P^^^'^iS-^i^^'i'^T^^^Afe^^fi ^"^ wfP'o^^L^Slp^H' SSo at the convent of Klnroy, and thence spread The Rev. Michael J. Ahern S J was appmnt^ io many other convents. Clemence Van den Broeck

^^^^ ^\^Ld^^\^l ^^' («i^er of the prior), and two other religious (Cath-

students registered for 1921. ^^.^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^'^^ Catherine van Weert) from

Oanon (cf. C. E., ni-252b).— A bishop must con- the convent of Godsboomgaars at Roermond went suit the cathedral chapter when he wishes: to unite at the request of Jean Van den Broeck to Ste simple benefices to prebends or to suppress pre- Odile where they were admitted to profession as bends on account of the smallness of the revenues; canonesses 8 October, 1480, and on the following or to fix the time for the canon theologian to ex- day, with three novices who had received the habit plain the Scriptures in church, to appoint to of the order, repaired to Kinroy. They observed