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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/234

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OOIiOlflBIA 218 COLOMBIA

(Colombia goes to the United States. The cotton with 2,317 pupils, and 24 art and trade schools area in 1918 was 24,000 acres; production, 2,750,000 with 1,203 pupils. In 1920 there were altogether pounds. The value of the tobacco exported in 1918 4,422 public and private elementary schools with was $1,004,692. The cultivation of nee on a large 333,058 Pupils; also 27 normal schools with 1,359 scale was first attempted in 1918-19. pupils. The universities of Medellin, Cartagena,

Manufacturing,-^The Panama hat industry is Popayan and Pasto had an attenduice of 2,488 in making great strides; some 86 per cent of the hats 1917. In 1919 the State spent 1,096,810 pesos. A manufactured are sent to the United States. The imiversity for women has been opened. In 1918 total number of factories in Colombia in 1915 was the pupils in the public schools of the municipality 121, in which $12,406,000 was invested. The prin- of Medellin included 17.1% of the population, cipal manufacturing centers are Bogota, Medellin, which, compared with 19j65% in the United States, Barranquilla, and Cartagena. The petroleum in- speaks very favorably for primary education in this dustry has become of great prospective importance, progressive district of Colombia. In 1918, 7-31%

Commerce, — Colombia's foreign trade for 1918 throughout the Department of Antioquia were at- included imports valued at $22,034,004 (Colombian tending school, as compared with an average of only dollars); exports, $37,728,559. In 1918 56.72% of 3% for the rest of the countiy outside the De- the imports were from Great Britain: of the ex- partments of Caldas and £1 VaUe.

l^J^kT^J^K!^^*^^*^^^"^^ to that country. GovBBNMBNT.-At present there are 14 depart- The United Stetes received 92% of all the exports ^ente, 2 "intendencies," and 7 commissariefl. The m 1916, and lumwhed 56% of the imports. At legislative power rests with a Congress of two

SST^I^'i* *^ ^F^fu^^'^f.n^^^^S? J^®®"* ^^ Houses, called the Senate and House of Rcpre-

428,625 tons; of the^ 110 of 320,971 tons were sentatives. The Senate contains 34 senators elected

^rican, and 26 of 66,242 tons were BntiA. In fo^ 4 years indirectly by electors chosen for the

1920 there were 16 Imes of railway (10 national purpose. The House of Representatives consists

wd 5 Bntish companies), with a total mileage of ^f 92 members elected by the people in 17 electoral

891 miles. The roads of Colombia are generally circumscriptions (one for eveiy 60,000 of popula-

mmple mule tracks but are beiM improved for ^.j^^j Senatore are elected for 4 years, one for

the use of automobiles. Much of the inland traffic ^y^^ i20,000 inhabitants; representatives for 2

IS by nyer; the work of canalwmg the lower and years. The President is elected by direct vote of

upper Magdalena IS being earned on. This nver ^y^^ j^pie for a term of 4 years and has two sub-

u navigable for 900 miles, steamers ascending as g^itutes idesignadoa), a first and second, elected

(" T^i ^^ryS*"?!?*' ^ "ihJ^^, ^a^nquiUa. annually by Congre* to succeed the President

In July, 1920, there were 13,640 miles of govern- respectively, in <^e of his absence, death, or in-

ment telegraph Imes. At the end of 1920 the ability to serve. There is no vice-president. Ap-

oonsohdated debt amounted to $2348.260, and the pointed by the President and freely removable by

floating debt to $10,840,654. The budget estimates ^^ are the Ministere of War, Finance, Foreign

for the same year were: revenue, $23355,2^; ex- ^^^ public Instruction, Treasury, Agriculture,

penditures $27,792,581. The mam sources of reve- and Commerce and Public Works. The Supreme

nu^ were the customs and next, the salt tax. T^e Q^y^ j^^j (9) ^^ ^j^^^ £0^ g^e years, four

leadmg Items of expenditure were for the Depart- ^y the SeSate, five by the House. General JPedro

ment of the Interior and the national debt servi^. ^^i ^j^^ ^^g ^^^^^^^ President in February. 1922.

The following items were allowed m January, 1919: ^he Presidente since 1910 have been Senor Carlos

E. Restrepo (1910-1914), Don Jos6 Vincente Concha


Public instruction

Charitable institutions

Hospital of San Juan de Dios

Yanous ecclesiastical foundations. Non-religious foundations


$660662 <^^1^1S)» ^^ Sefior Marco Fidel Suarez (191^22). 149500 Abmt and Navy.— There is compulsory military 209*592 service for a year and a half or a year. The per- 854048 D^^ent army of Colombia consists of about 6,000 436*680 ^^^ The President is, however, authorized to

  • increase this number to 20,000 men m case of public

necessity. The total war strength of the armed

The redemption of paper currency and the force, including trained reserves, is estimated at restoration of metallic money has been undertaken 120,000.

by the Government. A special law has fixed the Eoclbsiabtical Histoby.— In March, 1908, the pre- rate of exchange between the paper and gold at fectures apostolic of Piani di S. Martino and In- 10,000 per cent, making the value of the paper tendencia Orientale were united and erected into pesos equal to one cent gold. The monetary unit a vicariate. On 28 April, 1908, the prefecture apos- is a gold dollar equal to one-fifth of a pound tolic of Chaco was erected, and entrusted to the sterling or $0^7 United States money. The first care of the Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, gold was coined in 1913 and in 1916 a law allowed The vicariate apostolic of Casanare was divided in the Government to coin gold pieces in the mints 1915, and the Prefecture of Arauca formed from of Bogota and Medellin free of charge. The silver that part of its northern territory west of the coins minted before 1911 ceased to be legal tender Casanare River. In the same year the Diocese on 1 May, 1918. of Antioquia was dismembered, the southern por-

Edx7Gation^ — ^According to law, attendance in the tion beine erected into the Diocese of Jerico. In public school is gratuitous, but not compulsory. 1917 the Tatter was reunited aeque principaUter to The school system is under the supervision of the Antioouia and the Diocese of Santa Rosa de Osob Minister of Public Instruction and the national erected from territory in the northeastern part of Government furnishes the textbooks, supplies, and Antioquia. The mission of Uraba became a pre- appliances, while the departments and municipalities fecture in June, 1917, and was put in chaii^e of the furnish the buildings and pay the teachers. Educa- Discalced Carmelites. For Catholic statistics see tion is divided into primary, secondary, profes- articles on subjecta mentioned above; Bogota, sional, artistic, and industrial. In 1919 there were Archdiocese of; Cartagena, Archdiocbsb op; 5,236 primary schools with 32,696 pupils, 75 second- Medellin, Archdiocese op; Popayan, Abchdioci8b ary schools with 6,716 pupils, 24 professional schools of; and their suffragans.