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Government grant to the missionaries for educaticm of the provinces is administered by a vice-governor amounted to 887,100 francs, while the total expendi- general, to whom is entrusted the care of its inter- ture on education was 1,297,880 francs. nal aflfairs. The governor general has full executive

EooNOBduc Status. — ^The gold mines in 1919 em- authority in the colony, except in so far aa he is ployed some 8,000 natives, the output being 3,356 restrained by laws and royal decrees, kilos. The copper mines produced 22,130 tons of Judicial Powbb. — For the administration of civil copper. The exportation of diamonds in 1919 and criminal cases there are seven Courts of First amounted to 215,532 carats. The chief exports Instance, each with a judge, prociareur d^Etai to in 1919 were: Palm nuts, 34^50,030 kilograms; rub- represent the people, and a greffier; there are two ber, 3,797,440 gr.; palm oil, 6,404,510 kilogs; cop- courts of appeal composed of a president, two per, ore, and crude, 23,028,000 kilogs. Of the special judges, a procuretar general and a greffier. Under imports in 1918, the value of 28,712,502 francs came the new regime (1913) the territorial administrator from Great Britain; 1,224,856 francs from France; sits as a police court with power over minor of- 2,056,017 francs from Angola; 1,824,238 francs from fences. From this an appeal can be made to the the United States. The rubber industry was revived Court of Public Prosecutor, which deals with all in 1915, and the following year 2,232 tons of rubber ofifenses by natives and consists of a judge, the were exported. royal prosecutor, and a registrar. A crime com-

CoMMUNiCATioNS.— The Congo is navigable for mitted by a native is judged by the chief of the nearly 100 miles above its mouth, as far as Matadi, place where it is committed. An* appeal can be and again above the Stanley Pool for a distance made to the court of a superior chief, and to of 1,600 miles. The railway mileage on 1 January, a European court only when the defendant is 1920, was 1,250, the longest lines being those from aggrieved and demands that the case be heard Bukama b^ way of Elizabethville to the frontier anew. In civil matters natives may alwa3r8 have of Rhodesia (456 miles), the Kindu-Kongolo line recourse to European courts. Despite the de- (327 miles) and the Matadi-Leopoldville line (248 fendimt's reluctance the chiefs judgment holds miles). Within the Congo system are included two between non-matriculated natives. There are also sections of the Cape-to-Cairo Railway. The tele- military courts iconseil de guerre, coriseil de guerre graph mileage is 2,065. d'appel). At the head of this administration of

GovEBNMENT. — ^As a Fcsult of the international justice is the conseil superior de Bruxelles, which situation created by the chai^ges of misgovemment constitutes the cour de cassation, against the Congo Free State, the Belgian Congo Defense. — ^The colony possesses a force of native was annexed by Belgium in 1908, the annexation troops amounting to about 16,(X)0 men, all infantry, becoming more efifective November 16 of that year, organised into Uiirty companies and recruited by The government of the country is now carried on voluntary enlistment. The officers and non-com- according to the Constitution finally approved by missioned officers (365) are Europeans^ for the King Leopold on 18 October. 1908, modified to most part Belgians, and are enlisted for seven years, some extent by subsequent Acts of the Belgian The territorial force numbers about 6,000 men. Parliament, of which the more important are those Recent CHANOES.^In the Franco-German Con- of 29 March, 1911, 5 March, 1912, and 9 December, vention of 1911, Germany promised not to oppose 1812. the establishment of a French protectorate over

By these enactments, Congo is placed under the Morocco, and France agreed to maintain the open legislative control of the King of the Belgians, door in Morocco and to cede two strips of the but he must act on the advice of the Colonial French Congo to Germany. In 1918, however. Minister, who is responsible to Parliament. His the districts of Ruanda and Urundi, together with legislative power he exercises by decree, and his the territory around Lake Kivu (formerly in Ger- executive power by regulations, subject, however, man East Africa) were ceded to Belgium as manda- te any laws passed by the Belgian Parliament, toiy of the League of Nations. The total area is The King is aided by a Colonial Council of four- about 19,000 square miles. In order to obtain a teen members, eight of whom are nominated by practicable railway route to join the Tanganyika the King, three by the Senate, and three by the Territory to Uganda, the BritiA acquired by trans- Chamber. Parliament retains the control of the fer the eastern strip of the Province of Ruanda Colonial Budget. In addition to the Colonial and a small part of Urundi. Council there are two other bodies of a consulative Missions. — Non^athoUc. — The Episcopalian character at Brussels, the Conseil superior du Methodists of the Northern States of America re- Congo, which created in 1899, and acts as a. court cently came from Rhodesia into this region where of appeal, and the Commission des terres, which jq the past two years the Pentecostal Mission and was created in 1910, and consists of five members, the Heart of Africa Mission have abo opened government officials, who examine all questions stations. The African Mission, finding itself cramped relative to the concession or sale of land. jn British East Africa, also moved into the Congo.

By a royal decree in 1912, the terntorial divisions j^ 1918 some members of the Brethren persuaswn of the colony were reorganized, the number of dis- from America began the Ubangi-Shari Mission. In tnots bein^ increased from twelve to twenty-two. aU there are fifteen Protestant societies with a Each district is administered by a commissioner gtafif of 400 missionaries in seventy-eight stations; who is in charge of the military and police. The five are British, one is Swedish, and the rest are twenty-two districts are: Lower Congo, Middle American.

Congo, Kwango, Sankuru, Kassai, Lake Leopold II, Ca«fcoKc.— Ecclesiastically Belgian Congo is Equator, Lulonga, Baugala, Ubangi, Lower Uele, divided into five vicariates apostolic: LeopoTdvUle, Upper Uele, Itun, Stanleyville, Aruwimi, Lowa, New Antwerp, Upper Kassai, Stanley Falls and Kivu, Mamema, Lomami, Tanganika-Moero, Lulua, tipper Congo; and seven prefectures apostolic: and Upper Luapula. By a royal decree of 1914, the Katanga, Northern Katanga, Matadi. Belgian last four districts form the Province of Katanga; Ubanghi, Western Uele, Eastern Uele, and Kwango. the first five districts form the Province of Congo- Yot statistics see articles under these titles. Kassai, the next five form the Province of Equator,

and the remaining eight districts form the Eastern Oongo, Lowier or Portuquesb, Vigabiatb Apo»- Province, with Stanleyville as its capital. Each touc of. See Loango.