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OZBOHOSLOVAEIA


247


OZEOHOSLOVAXIA


the expressly designated Catholic parties. More- over, the Catholics obtained only one representa- tive in the first Cabinet, appointed by the National Assembly in 1018, and none at all in the second, appointed by President Masaryk, seven months later. The ministers of the two Governments, as they are called, were divided among the parties as follows:


Name of Party

Social Democrats

National Democrats

Agrarians

Socialists

Slovaks

Popular (Catholic)

Non-party


Second Gov't

T"


4 4 2

1


With the National Assembly and Government frankly socialistic, it is not surprising that anti- Catholic measures should be the drder of the day, such as the law passed 22 May, 1019, abolishing the indissolubility of marriage and providing for divorce for a number of reason& A Bill for the separation of 'the Church and State was introduced, its main points being the elimination of all expense items m the budget for religious work, the declaration of all church property as State property, and the performance by civil authorities of all marriage ceremonies. The passage of such a Bill would be contrary to the stipulations of Article I of the Treaty of Peace, but its very introduction shows the trend of the present Government. President Masaryk, formerly a Catholic, now an agnostic, is subservient to the anti-clerical Jewish elements in the government, and only Archbishop Kordac's determined defense of his rights, tne growing strength of the Catholic party and the realization of the weight of papal influence in the world have checked the campaign of Church spoliation at first inaugurated. In September, 1921, an agreement between the bishops and the Government was reached, whereby high schools and colleges were to remain under the jurisdiction of the former, subject to the inspection of the latter. In 1920 Mgr. Clement Micara, consecrated titular Arch- bishop of Apamea, presented his credentials as papal nuncio to Czechoslovakia to President Masaryk. Doctor Krofta, Minister from Czecho- slovakia to the Vatican, was present at his conse- cration in Rome. In the new Cabinet (1921) Mflp*. Francis Sramek, a papal chamberlain from the diocese of Olmutz, is minister of railwasrs.

In 1918 after Czechoslovakia had gained its in- dependence, and with every national instinct fanned to white heat, a small group of Catholic priests broke away from their allegiance to the Holy See and endeavored to found a national church. The use of the vernacular in their worship and the marriage of the clergy were the first distinctive changes. Many of those who, under the Austrian r%ime, when Catholicism was the established reli- gion, had been nominal adherents for reasons of convention, tradition, facility, and personal advan- tage, and others to whom it was an appeal for Czech liberty, joined the new Church. In 1920 its members were excommunicated by the Pope, who appointed to such dioceses as were then vacant Slovakian priests who were at the same time loyal Republicans, and permitted the use of the Czech language in the administration of the Sacraments. The schism is rapidly disinte^ating, its faith, liturgy, and discipline alike being m a state of flux and


confusion, and it now seeks union with the Servian Orthodox Church. In the first national census taken in 1921 it was shown that the majority of the apostates profess no religion and are not now adherents of the National Church. The change from autocracy to democracy, from a friendly gov- ernment to a hostile one, has been efi^ciently coped with by the Church, aiid in spite of a hostile gov- ernment, a small schism, many apostasies, much indifference, a vigorous Servian propaganda, and a still more influential propaganda emanating from wealthy Protestants in America, the Church in Czechoslovakia has become better organized and far more active in the space of two years than she was for three centuries under the Austrian regime.

The Church in Czechoslovakia is divided into the following sees: the prince bishopric of Olomouc (Olmiitz), with its suffragan Brno (Briinn); the archdiocese of Prague with its suffragans Bude- jovice (Budweis), Hradec Kralove (Konniggratz), and Litomerice (Leitmeritz) ; the diocese of Eosice (Cassovia), dependent on Eger; Banska Bystrica (Neusohl), dependent on Esztergom; Nitra, de- pendent on Eger: Roznava (Rosenau), dependent on Eger; Spisz (Zips), dependent on Eger. The diocese of Munkacs and Prjasev (Eperies) follow the Greek Ruthenian Rite and are dependent on Esztergom.

HiBTOBY.— The history of Czechoslovakia as a republic dates from 28 October, 1918, when the Narodni Vybor (N .tional Council) took over the government of the Czechoslovak countries, includ- ing Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Slovakia, which had hitherto belonged to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. This, however, was the culmination of a movement which dated back to 1848, when the European upheaval strengthened the Czech move- ment, which assumed a political shaps with the establishment of the Czech language press. The outbreak of the World War found the Czechs united and reydy for liberty. The bulk of them had fought for autonomy within a federalized empire, but the reign of terror with which the people's reluctance to take part in the war was met, strengthened those wno demanded complete inde- pendence. The thousands of military executions, the numberless confiscations and arbitrary im- prisonments, angered the people, whose soldiers were going over to the Russians and Servians in great numbers. Finally in Paris in November, 1915, a committee of exiles demanded complete indepen- dence and unity of race. Formal action severing Bohemia from Austria-Hungary was taken by the provisional government on 18 October, 1918, when it adopted a declaration of independence. On the same day the Czechs seized control of Prague, the capital of Bohemia, and the Czech flag was raised over Hradschin Castle. A general strike was pro- claimed throughout the country. The Austnans made little attempt at resistance and after a few days fighting the Czechslovak National Council gained full control. The Czech Nationalists took over the functions of the local government in Prague on 28 October. The Austrian Government fled to Vienna and the imperial military authorities handed over their power to the local head of the National Council. The republic was immediately proclaimed. Two delegations of Czech leaders, one from Prague and another from the Provisional Government at Paris, met in Geneva, Switzerland, to formulate a new constitution for the republic. On 14 November, 1918, the Czechoslovak National Assembly met in Prague and formally declared the Czechoslovak state to be a republic with Professor