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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/301

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fiNGLAlTD 285 ENOI.Ain)

Governor of the Church of England^ nominates all to Compile. The British force sent to save the bishops and archbishops. There are three arch- Antwerp was too small to be of any avail, and on bishops at the head of the three provinces of 5 October, 1914, was forced to evacuate the city. Canterbury, York, and Wales, and 43 bishops and i^ the meantime the British army was reinforced 39 suffragan and assistant bishops. The latest statis- by volunteers from England and a strong con- tics give 14,614 civil parishes. Of the mam^M tingent from India, and was moving up to Ypres. celebrated in 1919, 69.7% were m the Established Determined to capture the seaport towns the Ger- Church, 62% in the Roman Catholic Church, 11.5% mans fiercely assailed the allied line along the were Nonconformist marriages, 0.04% were Quaker Yser River, at Ypres, at La Bass6e and before Arras, marriages, 0.5% Jewish, and 23.1% civil marriages xhe German attempt failed, and the Battle of in the Registrar's office. The Unitarians have about flanders subsided into a dreary process of trench- 350 places of worship; the Catholic Apostolic digging with intermittent cannonading. The orig- Church about 80; the New Jerusalem about 76. jj^f British force of 160,000 was augmented until The Salvation Army included (1919) about 24,600 jt numbered 760,000 men, without counting the officers and employees, 11,170 corps and outposts, colonial troops, which were arriving from Canada, and 71,400 local officers. Australia, and India. With its lines thus strength-

In 1914 an act was passed disestabhshing and ened the British began a formidable offensive at disendowing the Church in Wales; it came into Neuve Chapelle. but from want of ammunition and force 31 March, 1920. failure of reinforcements the first British drive,

By Apostolic Letters of Pope Pius X, 28 October, in 1915, turned out to be a victory "that halted 1911, the Catholic Church in England and Wales, half ^ay through lack of prompt support and co- which had previously consisted of one province, was ordination." They, however, took part in the great divided into three; on 17 February, 1916, a fourth offensive under Foch, and penetrated the German province, that of Cardiff, was added; on 22 March, lines to a depth of two miles. In December, 1915, 1917, the new diocese for Essex was erected, receiv- gi^ Douglass Haig succeeded Sir John Fi-ench in ing the name of Brentwood, on 20 July, 1917. As command of the British troops in France. Those at present constituted the dioceses are divided as fol- qq the Somme front were commanded by Sir Henry lows: Westminster (1850), consisting of the Archdio- Rawlinson, who directed the second British drive, cese of Westminster and five suffragans, Brentwood, Their objective was now Bapaume. In the first Northampton, Nottingham, Portsmouth, and South- fortnight of the battle of the Somme they advanced wark; Birmingham (1911), consisting of the Arch- three miles and took 10,000 prisoners. In the diocese of Birmingham and three suffragans, Clifton, gecond phase of the battle they joined the French Plymouth, and Shrewsbury; Liverpool (1911), con- in taking Combles and Thiepval. In the battle of sisting of the Archdiocese of Liverpool and four Arras in 1917 they took Bapaume, Peronne, and suffragans, Hexham and Newcastle, Leeds, Middles- Chaulnes, and shortened the line by 25 miles, and brougn, and Salford; Cardiff (1916), consisting of carried Vimy Ridge. Renewing the offensive after the Archdiocese of Cardiff and one suffragan, a lull of several months the British concentrated Menevia. The number of priests, secular and their fire on Passchendaele Ridge. This battle of PMulap in England, according to the English Flanders strengthened their hold on Ypres, and "Catholic Directory" for 1922, is 3962; the number goon they were engaged in the battle cf Cambrai. of churches and chapels, 1933. There are 1196 JnT^arch, 1918, came the great German offensive Catholic elementary schools with 316,917 pupils, and against the British lines, which, owing to the in- 431 secondary schools with 43,695 pupils. The Cath- completed battles of Flanders and Cambrai and olic population is approximately 1,931,990. For the allied failures at St. Quentin and La Ffere in further statistics see articles on the dioceses men- 1917^ ^ere relatively weaker and could be out- tioned above. , -r-r , « manoeuvered with superior forces of men and muni-

Enoland in thb World War.— When the World tions. The line extending from Arras to St. Quentin War broke out between Austria-Hungary and ^as held by the third Bntish army under Sir Julian Servia, and between Germany, Russia, and France, Byng, and that from St. Quentin to the Oise by England's position was uncertain, until the Ger- the fifth army under Sir Hubert Gough. The Ger- mans commenced the invasion of Belgium on 2 man idea was to drive a wedge between the French August, 1914, whereupon the British Foreign Secre- and British armies, a design which was almost tary, Sir Edward Grey, dispatched an ultimatum realized, as Sir Hubert Cough's army, outnumbered to Germany, requiring assurance that Germany four to one, lost contact with the French at its would respect Belgian neutrality. Germany re- right and gave way at several points. Retreat fused on the ground of military necessity, and became rout, and the Germans swept forward, took

J- -n' 1 J X a ^ i_ -m 1 J 1 '^\. Byng was forced to yield Bapaume and finally

and England. In September England, alone with ^^ert. On 26 March, 1918, the gap between the the great powers IYan6e and Russia, mutuaDy en- j^^^^^ ^^ g^tish Unes was clos^ V the arrival Sf^ltSv n^r^'f.'H.i^^^^^ «^ the French army under Geneml Fayolles, who

Jtr^^JL^^o Jim^^^^ ^^JfS!nfhI^ xl ioi'i^d the British at Moreuil, and by the new S^n^rr p^Tb^ a BlitTsh^t^^^^ British army improvised from «ippers laborer, and

under Field Marshal Sir John Kench was dis- engineers under General Sandeman. In this Battle patched to aid the French and the Belgians, of Picardy the Gennans regamed nearly aU the Stationed north of Maubeuge they were forced by ground they held at the beginning of the Battle the fall of Namur and a hot contest at Mons to oi the Somme m 1916, and besides gained an area retreat from Mons to avoid a flanking movement of about 1500 sq. miles. The Bntish losses were of General Von Kluck's cavalry. Outflanked again severe, but their line was intact. In Apnl, 1918, on 26 August, 1914, they were driven from Cambrai, the British were forced to yield Armentiferes, Mes- and in two days expelled from St. Quentin. Aban- sines Ridge, Merville, and to withdraw from Pas- doning Amiens, Laon, and Reims they fell back schendaele Ridge, which they had captured at such to the Mame on a line extending from Soissons tremendous cost the previous year.