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and hold separate services. In other States a new a license to preach after the required examination,

church constitution has likewise been adopted. A may insist on a second examination later, if a

curious feature of the Brunswick and Mecklenburg- doubt arises in connection with the orthodoxy of

Schwerin constitutions is the institution of bishop?' the preacher's teachings. Before appointing a priest

as heads of these chivches. to a parish, the local ordinary should test his knowl-

lU. Statibticsj— The German Empire had, in 1914, edge bv an examination held in his own and the 66 million inhabitants, of whom 41 million were Prot- synodal examiners' presence; but, with the syi^odftl estants and over 24 million were Catholics. Owing examiners' consent, hs may dispense from the to the losses sustained in the war and cessions im- examination in case of a priest who is known to be posed by the peace treaty the German Republic skilled in theology; where, however, the provision was reduced to 60,900,000 inhabitants, according to of parishes is made by a concursus, that practice the census returns of 8 October, 1919. Further is to be continued until the Holy See decrees other- losses have since been incurred by the cession of wise. If a parish priest is transferred at the request Sart of Silesia to Poland in accordance with the and wish of the ordinary, he should be re-examined; ecision of the League of Nations. The population if the transfer is at his own request, the examination of Germany is now scarcely 60,000,000, approxi- is optional; but no examination is needed when mately ^,000,000 of these being Protestants and the transfer is forced. An ordinary may examine 19,000,000 Catholics. The decrease of several mil- anyone before confirming or instituting lum in any lion in the Catholic population is accounted for ecclesiastical office. All priests must, unless ex- by the cession of predon^inantly Catholic provinces empted by the local ordinary for just cause, be to France and Poland through the treaty of Ver- examined yearly in sacred science, for the tnree sailles (1919). years following the completion of their studies;

mxakn, Creah,H€reiy-Hwamg and SeceuUm in German the matter for the examination and the manner

^'!^r^^iflier^'c^ pZ::iJSLiiln^]Vii in Which it > to be held are determined by the

(Muxuter, 1918); Radb, thb Preient suuation of Christianity ordinary; pnests m reugious Orders are to be exam-

mOermany in Amerietm Journal of Theology, XXIV. IMO, jngd similarly by SOme of the fathers for a period

^»U«Ti<i»?^f "•SrSS^SU^f^KJ?^^ of five years, after completing their studies,, unless

bucA (annual); Lbmpp, Church and Religion in Oermany in they are exempted by their higher SUpenors or

Harvard Theolpgie^ Review, Xiy OWi), 80-52; Oubab, Die when they are teaching theology, canon law, or

NeugrUndung de$ Ktrehenwetene ttn deuttehen Protettantumui -^UrtloBfiV «Wlrva/\«Kv

in AUgemiene Rundschau (Munich, January 14 and 21, 1921); SCnolastlC pftllOSOpliy. lOBM, Die neuen proteatantiaehen Landeikirchen, loc, cit.,

4 Febniaiy, 1922. jj j^ WwBOL. Examiners, Synodal (cf. C. E., V-676).— In each _ - ,_ \ • xi. diocese there are to be not less than four nor Bvora, Abchdioctsb OF (ELBOWMfsis), m the more than twelve synodal examiners, the Code Province of Alemtejo, Portugal. This see is filled leaving the exact number in each instance to the by Mort Rev. Manuel Mend^ Da Conceicao discretion of the bishop. The names of the exam- Santos, b. in the Diocese of Lisbon 13 December, jners are proposed in the synod by the bishop and 1873, chancellor of the cathedral at Guarda, doctor approved by the synod. If any of them should of divimty, appointed Bishop of Portalegra 9 dig or vacate his position in the interval between December, 1915, promoted to the titular metropoli- two synods, the bishop, on consulting the cathedral tan see of Philippopohs and coadjutor of Evora chapter appoints a substitute. Formerly, . if the 4 June, 1920. Upon the death of Agustin Eduardo number of examiners fell below six more than a Nunez (b. 31 March, 1849, d. 14 July, 1920) he year after the synod was held, the bishop had to succeeded to Evora 24 July following. In 1921 the obtain leave from the Holy See to fill the vacancies. Portuguese Government decorated him with the After holding office for ten years or lees, if a new Cross of the Order of Christ. The census of 1900 s3mod occurs sooner, their tenure of office ceases, showed the diocese to have a Catholic population but they may complete any work they have begun, of 206,518, 176 parishes, and 176 priests, while the and may be reappointed. They cannot be removed statistics of 1903 credited it with 313 churches and by the bishop, except for grave cause and after 297 chapels. consulting the cathedral chapter. The chief duties Bvreux, Diocbbb op (Ebboicbnsis), in the de- ?^ ^^^ synodal examiners are to examme candidates partment of Eure, Prance, suffragan of Rouen, for parochial benefices, and to assist the bishop Upon the death of Rt. Rev. Philippe Meunier, 11 J^ **»« proceedings concerning the removal or trans- January, 1913, Rt. Rev. Louis-Jean Dechelette was ifence of panah pnests; they may be appointed transferred to succeed him 7 February, 1913. On 9 ?^, °y ^^% f^^^p to conduct examinations for August, 1919, Bishop Dechelette was named by the faculties and for the recently ordained pneste. An Belgian king commander of the Order of Leopold, examiner may, be a parochial consultor, but he He died the foUowing year, on 11 April, and was ™*y ^^^ *^* *^ °®*^ capacities in the one case.

succeeded by Rt. Rev Constantin CWin, born Excommimlcatlon (cf C E V.678) -The sixth m Coss^le-Vivien 1859, made his studies at -n**^*™™*;***"" vci. \^. rj,, ^^'f/; ^"^ ^f^"

Mayenne, Laval, and St. Sulpice in Paris, and was J*^°^.®' * iq Si ^ li?^ iw^' ^^^^^ camemto

ordamed in 1882. He serve/ as professo^ of Holy ^°«^.\»^ ^^}^' ^«?K«» *^.*,* ^^ ^^^^^ ecdesiastica

Scripture at the Seminaiy of Laval, and rector of pumshmente, whether spiritual or temporal, medicinal

the lower seminary, and was named an honorary ^^ '"'J^^^^^^' ^fi!^^ l^^^'^^'^^^^^^

canon in 1900, a member of the Biblical Commit- *^o^«l "^ .^^f. ^"^^ have been abolished. The

sion in 1903, titular chanceUor and vicar general in excommumcaUons contained m the Constitution

1907, and appointed bishop 30 July, mO. The /j^?"'^ ^^' ^°^ instance, and setforth m

1920 statistics credit the diocese with 323,651 Cath- ^^^^ ^ the Catholic Encyclopbdia, y-686 sqq.,

oUcs, 73 parishes, 545 succursal parishes, and 41 ^*^® ^ ^°«^ **'TJ°"^:vf "" n^^ '"^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^

vicariates formerly supported by the State. The ^^« *^" re^ei^cted m the Code.

diocese is dedicated to St. Taurin, and the cathe- Excommumcatipns are now divided into five

dral and chapter to the Blessed Virgin. categories, aceordmg as thev are reserved: (a) very

,^^ . especially to the pope; (b) specially to the pope;

Ezamination (cf. C. E., V-673d).— A local ordi- (c) simply to the pope; (d) to the bishop: (e) to

naiy or religious superior who has granted a priest no one. Of these the first class, though hitherto