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has 222 literate persons to each 1000 of the popula- jute, 2,821,600 acres, 8,428,000 bales; sugar cane,

tion. In the Central Provinces and Berar the pro- 2,695,000 acres, 2,989,000 tons. During 1919-20 the

Sortion ranges from only 6 per thousand in the total area irrigated b^ all classes of works in India,

hota Valley to 54 in the Nerbudda Valley. Ben- excluding the areas irrigated in the ladian states,

gal's rate is 77 and Madras's 75. Education is amounted to over 28,000,000 acres. Thirteen per

more widely diffused in Briti^ provinces than in cent of the cropped area was irrigated by Govem-

native states. Of the different religious communi- ment irrigation works and the estimated value of

ties, excluding the Brahmans and Aryas, the Parsis the crops so irrigated amounted to nearly 2V^

rank the highest with 711 literates per 1000. The times the total capital expended on the works.

total number of literate persons has risen during The area under tea plucked in 1920-21 was about

the last decade from 15,700,000 to 18,600,000, or 691,000 acres, and the production was al)out 377,055,-

18%. In 1918-19 there were in India for males, 600 pounds. The cultivation of opium, which is a

134 arts colleges, students 49^15; 1803 high schools, government monopoly, has diminished as a result

students 584,270; 129,805 primary schools, students of the agreement with China to restrict the output.

4321,611 ; for females, 12 arts colleges, students In 1918-19 there were in British India, 235 cotton

915; 183 high schools, students 29,980; and 20,468 mills with 267,669 persons employed daily; 575

primary schools, students 1,119371. The total ex- rice mills with 47,724 persons employed ; 1405 cotton

penditure from public funds was 71,726,000 rupees ginning, cleaning, and pressing mills and factories

(1 rupee=l0324) ; from fees and other sources 58,- with 100,981 persons. On 31 March, 1919, there were

137,000 rupees* total 129,863,000 rupees. There are 2789 joint stock companies incorporated in India

eight universities, at Patna, Calcutta, Madras, Bom- under the India Coiimanies Act of 1913, and the

bay, Allahabad, the Punjab, and Mysore, all or- Mysore Companies Regulation III of 1895 (re-

ganized on the examining body system, having pealed in 1917), and in operation with a capital

a£Bliated to them a large number of teaching col- of £71,076,000. The total value of the minerals

leges. A Hindu University for students from all produced in British India and the Indian states

India has been established at Benares. In 1922 during 1918, was £15,771,085; of this, £6,017,089

the University of Visva-bharati Parishat at Shan- came from coal, £2,060,152 from gold, £1,131,904

tinketan, Bengal, was founded by Sir Rabindranath from petroleum. In 1919 the production of petro-

Tagore. Its purpose is to bring together the scat- leum was 305,651^16 gallons; of coal, 22,628,037

tered cultures of the East and to provide for the tons. In 1918 practically all the coal trade was

exchange of knowledge between the East and the under the Coal Controller. In the same year the

West. In 1917 the commission appointed to inquire average number of persons working in or about

into the conditions and prospects of the University the mines regulated by the Indian Mines Act was

of Calcutta made drastic recommendations in regard 237,738, of whom 150,064 worked underground. The

to the position of the Government in the matter of commerce of India in 1920 included imports valued

education. The one every serious defect of the edu- at 1674319,900, and exports valued at $1,060,986,599

cational system is that, in conformity with the (Indian goods, $1,003,308,500, foreign goods, $57,-

neutrality of the State in all matters of religion, 677,800), thus leaving a balance of $386,166,600 in

it has addressed itself almost exclusively to the India's favor.

intellectual development of the young Indian. The Finance. — ^The total revenue in the fiscal year result is that, whilst Western knowledge necessarily 1920-21 was £134325,900; the total expenditure shook the foundations of his old beliefs, it substi- £132,311,100. In addition there was an estimated tuted no wholesome restraints for those that it capital expenditure on State railways and irrigation loosened. Nor was any attempt made to bring his works of £13,852,100 and £735,000 initial expendi- Western education into direct relation with his ture on the new capital at Delhi. In 1917-18 India's home life, which continued to move on an alto- contribution to the war was £100,000,000, which was gether different plane, so that his home influences met partly by making over to the British Govern- either insensibly defeated the educational purpose ment the proceeds of the Indian war loans raised in the shaping of character, or else he cast them in 1917 and 1918, and partly by taking over a off prematurely without having anything to put in portion of the British war debt, their place. The same conditions were discussed Detencb. — At the outbreak of the World War in the report of the Industrial Commission (1919), the Indian Arm^ consisted of 76,953 British troops which summed up its findings as follows: /'The and 239,561 native troops. Up to the date of the Commission finds that India is a country rich in armistice, 1,161,789 troops were recruited during raw materials and in industrial possibilities, but the war. The Defence Act, passed in 1917, was poor in manufacturing accomplishments. Her labor abandoned in 1920 as a result of the Esher report ; IS inefficient, but for this reason capable of vast the army was reorganized in four commands instead improvement. The non-existence of a suitable edu- of two and in place of compulsory service for Euro- cation to qualify the Indians for posts requiring pean British subjects, an Auxiliary Force was raised industrial or technical knowledge was met by the on a voluntary basis.

importation of men from Europe, who supervised Religions. — ^The following statistics are taken

ana trained illiterate Indian labor in the pills." from the India Year Book (1921) : Hindus, 217,-

The educational system may be judged from the 586,892; Brahmans, 217,337,943; Aryas, 243,445;

fact that while the expenditure of the United States Brahmos, 5504; Sikhs, 3,014,466; Jains, 1,248.182;

on educatibn per head is $4.00 and that of England Buddhists, 10,721,453; Zoroastrians (Parsis), 100,096;

and Wales, $320, India is allowed only 2% cents. Mussulmans, 66,647,299; Christians, 3376^3; Jews,

With the introduction of the new constitution in 20,980; Animists, 10,295,168; minor religions and

1921 education, with the exception of the univer- religion not returned, 37,101; not enumerated by

sities becomes a provincial subject. religion, 1,608,556.

Economics. — ^About 72% of the population or (Jatholic troops are allowed the ministrations of

226,000,(X)0 people in India are engaged in agri- Catholic priests, but the expenditure is very small,

culture. The total acreage under the chief crops in that respect, amounting only to Rs. 430,923 per

and the production in 191(^20 was : wheat, 29,976.000 annum (the rupee varies from 30 to 32 cents) . An

acres, 10,()92,000 tons; rice, 78,394,000 acres, 34,199,- instructive commentary on this part of the subject

(XX) tons; cotton, 23,063,000 acres, 5,845,0()0 bales; is furnished by the figures of expenditure in the