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ISEIJIND 408 ISEUIND

city government adopted by Des Moines in 1907, a few days later, the Irish, fo]:]getting the past, became known as the Des Moines system. Ih 1911 enlisted voluntarily in the British Army, in re* it created the office .of commerce couisel to inves- sponse to a plea by the British imploring them tigate railroad rates and matters pertaining to com- to enlist to nelp Belgium, where the nmis and mcrce. In the same year the office of dairy and priests were being slam, they declared, and the food commissioner was created. A stringent child churches destroyed by the German Protestants, labor law was passed in 1915. The contract prison When it was believed that the war would not last labor system was recently abolished. Iowa nas a lonjg, the ]3arties responsible for the arming of N. E. workman's compensation law and laws providing Ulster against Home Rule made vigorous efforts to for safety in coal mines. There is a pure food discourage the Irish Catholics from enlisting, lest law, conforming in its requirements to the national they should learn the use of arms, and so be in a law. There are statutory provisions for direct position to meet any pro-British rising in N. E. primaries, for direct election of senators, and for Ulster in case Home Rule was granted. The author- non-partisan nomination of judges of the supreme ities at the War Office in London refused Redmond's district, and superior courts. The property rights offer of his Irish volunteers as an Irish unit for a of husbands and wives are equal, each upon the similar motive. Dazzled by the thought of fighting death of the other inheriting one-third of his or her to liberate small nationalities, Ireland nad come near real estate, while neither is responsible for the debts losing her own soul, when on Easter Monday, 24 of the other. The State ratified the Federal suf- April, 1916, Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, Thomas frage amendment, 2 July, 1919, and the prohibition Clarke, Joseph Plunkett, and their associates, amendment, 15 January, 1919, the thirty-first State rose in sudden revolt in Dublin, proclaimed the to do so. independence of Ireland, and unfurled the Irish

tricolor. For a week a bitter fight was staged, the Ir6land (cf. C. E., VIII-98b).— The history of British violating the internationally accepted Red Ireland since 1913 centers chiefly around the death Cross regulations. The revolt was crushed, but only of the Home Rule movement and the sanguinary after heavy losses had been inflicted on the Briti^. struggle for independence during and after the Less than 1100 Irish soldiers, and these included European War, which was professedly fought to women like Countess Markiewicz in their ranks, dethrone mi^ht as the basis of ri^ht and to liberate participated in the active fighting; of these 58 subject nationalities. Ireland is a distinct and were killed, while 16 leaders were court-martialed separate nation, the oldest in Europe, except Greece, and shot. The revolt took the populace by sur- It has a population of more than 4,500,000, and in prise, and was not in general approved at first, that surpasses Norway, Denmark, and Switzerland. Archbishop Harty and Bishops Hoare, Gilmartin It has an area of 32,531 sq. miles, and is larger and Morrisroe condemned it severely. Bishop than Belgium, Holland, Denmark, or Switzerland, OT)wyer, however, and later Archbishop Mannix of or any two of them combined. In 1918-19 the Melbourne, won the affection of Irish race by their British Government collected $170,000,000 in taxes protests against the crueltv of the British com- in Ireland, and spent there $65,000,000, reaping a mander-in-chief and by upholding Ireland's rights net profit of $105,000,000. The cost of government to self-determination. The public was shocked by in other small countries before the war was: the method of executing the leaders by twos or Servia, $26,000,000; Greece, $27,000,000; Switzer- threes over an extended period, and particularly by land, $35,000,000; Bulgaria, $35,000,000; Norway, the execution of James Connolly, the noted labor $36,000,000; Denmark, $47,500,000. In 1917 Portugal leader, who, having been severely wounded in the did a business of $115,000,000; Norway, $210,000,000 ; fighting, was nursed back to health sufficiently to Denmark, $325,000,000; Sweden, $375,000,000; while allow him to be carried out on the chair to face Ireland did a business of $820,000,000. In view of the rifles of the firing squad, these figures and of the fact that the Irish had About 4,000 Irishmen, mostly leaders of the never voluntarily accepted any union with England, patriotic party, were deported to England after it was but natural for the Irish to accept the state- the suppression of the revolt. An attempt made mcnts and professions of the governments of the by the Irish Nation League in August, 1916, to world and insist on their right to freedom. The induce the people to consent to remain in the present movement in Ireland for independence was British Empire failed. The national consciousness linked up with an unending series of wars and of the nation was awakening. In February, 1917, revolts against English rule, since the first attempt Count Plunkett, father of Joseph Plunkett, won a to subdue the island. It originated at the moment striking victory at an election in which his plat- when the agitation for Home Rule had failed in form was complete Irish independence. This vic- circumstanccs of extreme humiliation. The many tonr was followed by a convention of the public times reiterated promise of a very limited measure bodies in Ireland, which re-asserted the nationality of self-government had been violated and the of Ireland and pledged itself to use every means British Government had virtually pledged its word, to secure independence. The British premier, on the contrary, to divide Ireland for the first time Lloyd George, thereupon proposed a convention in history. When it seemed probable that some of Irishmen exclusively to arrange a settlement of measure of Home Rule would nave to be given to the Irish question and pledged the British Govem- Ireland, the British supporters in N. E. Ulster had ment to accept any solution of the Irish question been encouraged and permitted to organize well- upon which the convention could reach a substantial armed volunteer forces to resist Home Rule. When agreement, with the sole exception that Ireland the Irish, to meet this menace, began their volun- must remain within the empire. The proposal was teer movement and attempted to secure arms, the accepted by the Unionists and Parliamentarian British interfered and peaceful citizens were wan- Nationalists, but was rejected by the Sinn F6in tonly fired on by the British military on the last party, who refused to be nresent unless all the Sunday in July, 1914. Meanwhile the workingmen delegates should be elected dv adult suffrage, and of Dublin were forming their citizen army, while unless the convention should be free to decree Countess Markiewicz had founded the Fianna na independence. The term Sinn F6in, meaning "out- h-ftireann or Irish boy scouts, two bodies that made selves," was originally given by Arthur Griffith to the 1916 revolt possible. When the war broke out his movement to have Irishmen abandon the British