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it is the mother-house and novitiate of the Alexian formity to the law. These indemnities were to cease

Brothers for the United States, and the traininjg after ten years. In 1917 the suppression of all state

school for the members of the community. Candi- aid to the clergy of Algeria would have resulted

dates for admission to this order are received be- most disastrously, as many parishes, too poor to

tween the ages of eighteen and thirty-three years, support themselves, would have disappeared, and

are trained in hospital work as well as in the duties the numerous Catholics of 3panish, Italian and

of the religious state, and observe the Rule of St. Maltese origin would naturally have appealed to

Augustine. The Brothers also conduct hospitals in their mother-lands for priests and subsidies, leading

St. Louis, Mo., Elizabeth, N. J., and Oshkosh, Wis. to the ultimate disappearance of the French clergy.

On 22 Mav, 1006, at the meeting of the General in response to a petition of the archbishops and

Chapter of the Alexian Brothers, at Aix-larChapelle, bishops of Northern Africa, which was supported by

Germany, Brother Faulus Overbeck was elected as the Governor General and the financial delegation,

superior general, to succeed Brother Quirinus Bank, the French government granted an extension of the

who had held that position for fifteen years. In indemnities for five years.

1911 Overbeck was re-elected and remained superior Economic Conditions. — ^The European War con- general, by special permission of the Holy See, tributed largely to the development and prosperity until 1920, as owing to the World War it was im- of Algeria. At the outbreak of hostilities France possible to hold a general chapter for an election lookea to Algeria for her food supply, and since the of the general coimcil of the community. At that war its power of production, far from showing any date Brother Alexius Jansen, who had been pro- falling off, has enabled it to tide over the critical vincial rector of the American province, was elected oeriod that threatened to paralyze its activities, superior general. The general chapter resolved a Notwithstanding the difficulties of transport, its series of alterations in the statutes of the com- products realized high prices in France and abroad, munity denlanded by the new Canon Law; these and the growing wealth of the coimtiy is attested changes are now awaiting the approval of the Holy by the volume of foreign trade which in 1919 See. reached a total of 2,288 millards, or 759 millards

During the World War and its subsequent up- more than in 1919. Of the imports in 1919, 61.1 per

heavals the growth of the community was very cent came from France; of the exports, 8S2 per

much retarded, but sinca then several new branch cent went to France. In 1920 the chief imports

hospitals have been opened; one at Malseneck near were cottons, clothing and linen, machinery and

Munich, Bavaria, another at Viersen, Rheinprovinz, parts, wine, and tobacco. In 1919, 8,170 vessels of

Germany, while a branch house and novitiate 5,807,632 tons net entered, and 8,107 vessels of 5,704,-

are to be established in Ireland. In the United 719 tons cleared Algerian ports. The mercantile

States the number of candidates for the Brother- marine consisted on 1 January, 1920, of 364 vessels

hood is on the increase, and the Brothers contem- of 29,505 tons. On 31 December, 1919, there were

plate starting a training school for male nurses in 2,221 miles of railway open for traffic (807 privately

connection with the hospital at Chicago. The owned). However, the lack of development of the

present training of nurses oeing restricted to mem- immense resources of Algeria is due to inadequate

bers and candidates of the community only, and transportation facilities. Motor routes are being es-

there not being such a school in existence in the tablished and motor transport is being utilized in

United States, this institution would be of great every branch of trade. Tne soil is, under various

benefit to the pt^lic. systems, held by proprietors, by farmers, and by

mStayers or khammis. Most of the state lands have

Algeria, a French province in northern Africa, been appropriated to the colonists. In 1920 the

comprising two great divisions: Northern and yield of wine was 157,136,452 gallons; wheat, 243,000

Southern Algeria, which are in turn divided into tons; barley, 207,397 tons; oats, 73,422 tons. The

denartments and territories as follows: Northern forests cover 6,560,232 acres, of which 645,000 acres

Algeria, consisting of Civil Territory and Territoite are devoted to cork trees. In 1919 the mineral

de Commandement, 17 arrondissements and 269 output amoimted to 1,019324 tons,

commimes, besides 74 mixed commimes; Southern Education. — In 1919-20 there were 496 Moham-

Algcria, consisting of four territories, Ain Sefra. medan schools with 35,578 pupils, al£K> higher schools

Ghardaia, Tuggurt, and the Saharan oases, organized (medersas) at Algiers, Tlem^en, and Constantine.

by decree of 14 August, 1905, 12 communes of which For secondary education, Algeria had 16 establish-

5 are mixed and 7 native. The total population in ments with 9,837 pupils (7,180 bo3rs and 2,651 p^irls). 1911 was 5,563,^, of which 494,306 belonged to the There were also 1,298 primary schools and kmder- southem territories. This included 4,411^76 natives, gartens, public and private, with 132,617 pupils, 492,660 French, 70^71 Jews and descendants, 2,375 two normal schools for men with 29 professors and Tunisians, 23,115 Moroccans, 135,150 Spaniards, 230 students (54 Mohammedan), and three for 36,791 Italians, and 23,927 other foreigners. The women with 21 professo. and 200 students. The largest towns with their population (1912) are: imiversity at Algiers has an attendance of 1,428 Algiers, 172,397; Oran, 123,086; Constantine, 65,173; pupils, 614 for law, 359 for medicine and pharmacy* Bone, 42,039; Sidi-bel-Abbes, 30,942; Tlemgen, 189 for science, 266 for art. Besides the university 39,874; Mosta^anem, 23,166. there were schools for commerce, agriculture, hy-

Reugion. — ^The majority of the inhabitants are drography, and fine arts.

Mohammednns. There are about 70,000 Jews, with Government. — ^The administration of Algeria is

6 Jewish rabbis sharing in government grants. The centralized at Algiers under the authority of a gen- Protestant pastors number 13. The Catholic Church eral government and the control of the Minister in the province of Algeria is divided into the Arch- of the Interior. The Governor-General, nominated diocese of Algiers and its suffragans, the dioceses of by decree of the President of the Republic, is a»- Oran and Constantine (q.v.). When the Law of sisted by a conseil de gouvemement which deals in Separation went into effect in the French posses- a deliberative or consultative manner with certain sions (1906), a special decree (1907) empowered the affairs, and by a conseil aupSrior, whose principal Governor (general, where public and national inter- duties include the examination of the bucket pro- ests required it, to grant temporary indenmities to posals and the division of the taxes. The financial the clergy who conducted public worship in con- delegations comprise three groups of members or