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the islands ofCherso, Lussin, and Unie. Fiume Catholic Youth of Italy is an organization for

Was to be independent, but was brought into tei^ the moral and intellectual formation of Italian

ritorial contiguity witn Italy. Zara was to have youths to habituate them to profess their faith

an autonomous government, but was to be under openly, and to educate them for its defense. The

Itahan suzerainty. The island of Lagosta was parochial and diocesan clubs and associations are

also given to Italy. On the other hand the Jugo- also under a president general in Rome. In 1921

Slavs obtained Northern Dalmatia. The new agree- these clubs numbered 2300, with a membership

ment between Italy and Jugoslavia was embodied of 70,000. The Union of Catholic Women of Italy

in the lYeaty of Rapallo, signed on 12 November, is the third great organization and has for its

1020. This agreement was vigorously denounced by purpose the education of the Catholic woman of

Gabriele d'^jonunzio, who had seized Fiume and Italy for the full observance of her duties, religious,

declared it an independent state. War was there- civil, and social. The Economic Social Action com-

upon declared on Italy, and Fiume bombarded. prises the Movimento Sindicale Cristiano and the

In the negotiations following the Treaty of Ver- Movimento Cooperativo Cristiano, the first the sailles concerning German reparations, Italy was Italian Confederation of Workingmen, with a mem- awarded 10% of any reparations Germany could bership of 1,500,000: the second the largest and give. The difficulties between Greece and Italy most important of Italian Catholic organizations, following their convention of 1919, were settled conducted on a vast scale, embracing all industries, by a convention appointed in 1920 to delimit the and comprising about 7000 societies scattered all Adalian frontier (see Gbeecb). In a protocol over Italy.

signed between Albania and Italy on 2 August, Since the enpyclical Non Expedit" of Pius IX,

1^, at Tirana, Albania, Italy agreed to recognize Catholics in Italy were debarred from candidacy

the independence of Albania and to surrender for the Chamber of Deputies and from voting at

Avlona, withdrawing her troops as soon as public political elections. Piux X gave permission to

order permitted. Italy was to retain and fortify Catholics in specific cases to participate in political

the island of Saseno at the entrance to the Bay life and in time there came to be about thirty

of Avlona and also Punta Linguetta on the main- Catholic deputies in the Chamber, constituting,

land. In November, 1920, were published the terms however, neither a party nor a group. A change

of the Italo-Franco-British agreement for maintain- came in 1919 with the formation of the Popular

ing respective spheres of influence in Asiatic Tur- Party, which, though not a Catholic party in that

key, a pact which was secretly signed at Sevres its object is not pre-eminently religious and its

on 10 August, the date of the Turkish treaty. It members not necessarily Catholics, is inspired by

defined the areas of special interest to France and Christian principles and is in intent directly social

Italy, recognized as supreme the Italian interests and political. It is not dependent on ecclesiastical

westward of the French sphere between Cilicia and authority and receives as members any citizens

the coast facing Rhodes, also the right of Italy who accepts its program. The "Rerum N'ovarum"

to exploit the Heraclea coal basin. On 12 March, of Leo XIII is its leading text-book. It was formed

1921, Italy concluded a secret pact with the Turkish under the leadership of Don Luigi Sturzo, a Sicilian

Nationalists, pledging herself to support the Turkish priest, formerly vice-president of the Association of

demands for the restitution of Thrace and Smyrna. Italian Commimes, who became convinced that

In return for this and the withdrawal of all Italian with the end of the war the time had come to line

troops from Ottoman territory, Italy was guaranteed up for defense and reconstruction of society the

certain economic concessions and monopolies, in- great forces of the Catholic organizations that had

eluding the right of priority in the coal basin of developed. With personal disinterestedness and

Heraclea. firm discipline he has guided it tlurough the inevi-

In Jime, 1920, Pope Benedict XV issued an table first vicissitudes until it has become in Italy

encyclical rescinding the veto on official visits of what the German Center Party was in Bismarck's

Catholic sovereigns to the King of Italy in Rome, day, the arbiter of the situation. As the Socialist

The Church.— In no European country is the part3r refused to collaborate with any other party, social organization of Catholics going forward in no side could govern without the Popular party, more comprehensive fashion than in Italy. Its In electoral tactics it decided on a policy of in- methods are both interesting and businesslike; the transisency and in political elections of 1921 ob- entire field is divided into three distinct sections: tainea 1,245,305 votes and elected one hundred first, the Catholic Movement strictly so-called; and seven of its candidates. It was recently re- second, the Econoniic Social Action, and third, the sponsible for the downfall of the Giolitti ministry. Political Action. The first, Movimento Catholico Its members hold (1922) three of the most im- is made up of the following organizations: the portant portfolios, Grace and Justice, Public Works Popular Union among Catholics of Italy; the and Agnculture. With the Hon. Anile as Under- Society of the Catholic Youth of Italy; the Union Secretary of Public Instruction, it has penetrated of Catholic Women of Italy. The first of these was what was formerly the stronghold of Masoniy. The instituted by Pi\4p X in June, 1905, by the Ency- present Minister of Public Instruction is a Moderate clical "II Fermo Proposito," and is the mother and a man of practical religious faith. Other under- organization of the Catholic movement in Italy, secretaries from the Popular Party are in the Min- on which all other associations depend. It has isters of Labor, of War, of Liberated Territories committees in all the dioceses composed of paro- and the Treasury. Its success has meant the loss chial societies, the diocesan committees depending of prestige for both Socialists and Liberals. To upon the Central Direction Committee of the its strenSh as well as to the example of France Catholic Movement, which has its seat in Rome is due the attitude which the Italian press as a and whose President is nominated by the Holy whole has adopted in favor of a permanent recon- See. This central Directive Committee fimctions ciliation between the Holy See and Italy, by means of three secretariates, the Secretariate

for Propaganda, the Secretariate of Culture (or Ivory Ooast, Vicariate Apostouc op (LmoRis

formation of the social conscience), the Secretariate Eburnei; cf. C. E., XVI-84a), comprises a French

for Liberty of Schools, each thoroughly equipped colony in Equatorial Africa. This vicariate is under

for work in its special field. The Society of the the care of the Society of African Missions of