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MONGOLIA 512 MONBEAliE

to the Belgian Miasionaries of the Congregation of years, delegate of Eastern Mongolia to the general

Scheutvelo, and embraces the province of Jehol, congregation of his order in Europe; Albert Botty

part of the province of Chi-li lying without the (1875-1919), called from the vicariate to become

Great Wall, and part of the province of Mukden superior general of his order and being forced to

commonly called Pien. It is boimded on the south resien through sickness returned to the missions as

by that part of the province of Chi-li beyond the professor of theology in the seminary; John V3rt

Great Wall; on the west by the vicariate of Central de Wille^en (1866-1911), for nineteen years among

Mongolia: and on the north and east by Man- the miesions of the northern district, of which he

churia. The climate is severe and dry, especially was finisilly elected superior; Ernest G. van Obberge

in the north; in the southern part the heat of the (1875-1919), director of the southwestern district,

summer and the cold of the winter are intense, whose labors of twenty-one years in the vicariate

Epedimics are frequent, especially typhoid, scarlet resulted in many converts; Patrick Tcheng (1841-

fever, influenza, bubonic plague ana pneumonia. 1919), a zealous missionary for forty-three years;

Many of the newly arrived missionaries succumb to Marcus Tchao (1869-1920), dedicated to the work

typhoid. The vicariate is divided into 3 districts of the missions for twenty-one years, rector of the

and subdivided into 25 residences (churches with residence of Liukiatze, cruelly put to death by the

resident missionaries) , whence the priests administer pagans. Among the laity recently deceased is Joseph

to 151 Catholic centers (single congregations com- Tchang-tchenn-tong, catechist in Chao-yang-hien,

posed of 30 or more members), and to 1581 afiBliated whose zeal converted many and whose counsel was

localities (with less than 30 Catholics in a single sought by both the lowly and prominent, elected -

congregation). The total population approximates president of the council of the civil prefectiu^, ap-

5,0()0,000; the total Catholic population (July, pointed mandarin by the Manchurian government. 1921) is 35,031 Chinese. The secular priests are

Chinese and number 15; the regular priests (Con- Mongolia, Southwestern, Vicariate Apostolic

gregation of Scheutveld) number 38, and are of (Monqollb occiduo-meridionaus; cf. C. E.,

assisted by 1 lay brother. There are 70 churches X — 482b), in China, with residence at Eul-che-se-

and chapels, 1 convent for Chinese Brothers of the king-ti, is entrustea to the (Congregation of the

Sacred Heart, 1 convent for Chinese women living Immaculate Heart of Mary (Scheutveld). This

in community, 1 seminary with 29 seminarians, 2 mission has an approximate population of 2,000,000,

colleges for boys with 138 students, 2 normal schools of whom 32,072 are Christians, and 16,004 catechu-

for girls with 51 pupils, 55 elementary schools for mens. Having been modified again 12 December,

boys with 1360 pupils and 66 for girls with 1641 1914, it now comprises the territory in the ring

pupils, 76 catechetical centers with 2627 catechu- formed by the Yellow River and the Great Wall,

mens, 1 home for men with 32 inmates, and 1 for The vicar apostolic, Rt. Rev. Ludovic Van Dyck, b.

women with 18 inmates, 14 orphanages with 676 21 January, 1862, ordained 30 Mav, 1885. was ap-

children, 81 orphans in the care of nurses, and 20 pointed 12 Au^t 1915, titular Bishop of Abbir and

in the care of Catholic families. The number of Vicar Apostolic of Southwestern Mongolia, conse-

orphans adopted yearly is 127. The sect of Nai-li-ti crated 22 January, 1916. The 1921 statistics credit

on 17 November, 1891, martyred Fr. Petro Sin and the vicariate with 187 Christian communities, 33

60 neophytes and burnt the churches at Pakow residences^ 154 churches and chapels, 42 European

and Sanshekiatze. In 1900 the Boxers laid waste and 6 native priests, 72 native nuns, occupied in the

the entire vicariate with fire and sword. Fr. Joseph hospitals and schools, 165 instructors and catechists

Segers, at the age of thirty-two, at the command (men), and 126 women instructors, 1 seminary with

of the sub-prefect of Lwanpinghsien, was buried 2 seminarians, 4 students of philosophy and 42

alive for the Faith; his cause has been introduced Latinists, 3 colleges with 120 students, 1 normal

at Rome. school for ^Is with 21 students, 37 primary schools

The following are the more recent events of for boys with 1122 pupils,

note: 1908, founding of 2 new residences, in fJhan- Events of special importance include: from 1911-12

wan-tzen and Kong;^e-fu; 1909, founding of the the war occasioned on the declaration of the Republic,

college for boys in Hata ; 1910, foimding of a new the massacre of the missionaries and the Christians

residence in Ta-ing-tzen in Barin; 1911, epidemic by the Ko-lao-hoei sect in 1912; the great famine from

of pneumonia; proclamation of Mongolian inde- 1915-1916; the influenza epidemic from 1917-1918.

pendence; 1912, rebellion of the soldiers in Chao- which caused great ravages, yang-fu; the destruction by fire of the college for

boys at Sung-shu-tsoei-tze; battle between Mongol- Monopoli, Diocese op (Monopolttana; cf.

ians and Chinese with the latter the victors; 1913, C. E., X— 497a), in Italy, dependent directly on the

rebellion of the soldiers in Jehol; victory of the Holy See. The present bishop is Rt. Rev. Agpstino

Mongolians over the Chinese; Chinese soldiers de- Miff lore, consecrated titular Bishop of Domitiopolis

spoil the church, residences and settlement of Ta- in 1918 and transferred to Monopoli in 1920. TTie

ing-tzen in Barin, and after dispossessing the mis- Catholic population of the diocese is 62,503. There

sionaries and more than 1000 Catholics force them are 8 parishes, 137 secular priests, 10 seminarians,

to seek refuge among the churches of the south; and 29 churches and chapels. 1914, building of the church in Kongil-fou; 1916,

founding of a home for aged women in Sung-shu- Monreale, Archdiocese op (Montis Regalis; tsoei-tze; erection of three new residences in cf. C. E.,X — 508a), metropolitan see in the Province Choei-zen-chan, Fang-chenn, and Fons-ning-hein ; of Palermo, Sicily. The present archbishop is Rt. W18, famine in Chao-yang-hien; building of the Rev. Antonio Augusto Intreccialagli, O. C. C, b. church of Taing-tzen in Barin; 1918>19, death of 1852, consecrated Bishop of Caltanisetta in 1907, eight missionaries; 1920, deaths of four missionaries; promoted titular Archbishop of Sardica, and ooad- 1920-21, great famine in Chao-yang-hien. jutor of the Archbishop of Monreale m 1914, sue- Since the year 1908 death has claimed from the ceeded to the see in 1919 upon the death of B^op vicariate eighteen missionary priests, sixteen Euro- Lancia di Brolo, The Cathohc population of the peans, and two Chinese, among whom were the archdiocese is 228,600. There are 30 parishes, 352 following: Wilhelm Meyer (1838-1909), labored secular prieste, 66 regular prieste, 120 seminanans, among the missions of the vicariate for forty-three 29 Brothers, 94 Sisters, and 218 churches and chapds.