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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/549

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under commission government greater latitude in by the value of the products, are cars and general the administration of local affairs was declared un- shop construction and repairs by steam railroad corn- constitutional by the Supreme Court on 22 May, panies, lumber and timoer products, and flour and 1914. In 1916 a state Department of Agriculture grist-mill products. There are about 3000 miles of and a Workmen's Compensation Aid Bureau were railway in the State. The bonded indebtedness in created, in 1918 the Department of Charities and Cor- 1920 was $4,291,500; the assessed value of real and rections, the Interstate Bridge and Tunnel Com- personal property in 1919, $371,559,631. There are mission, a Board of Fisheries, and a Boxing Com- 113 banks (44 national and 69 others) in the State, mission. In 1920 the legislature passed over the with an aggregate capital of $56,966,000.

Sovemor's/veto a measure authorizing a bond issue of Education. — New Mexico has a State board of

28,000.000, for New Jersey's share in the building of education and a county board of education for each

the Delaware River Bridge between Camden and countv. Elementary education is free and compul-

Philadelphia, and the Hudson River vehicular tunnel sory oetween the ages of six and sixteen for seven

between Jersey City and New York City. A bonus months in the school year. About 8.500,000 acres of

was granted to all veterans of the Great War. The public lands have been set aside lor the common

County Park Boards are authorized to permit Sunday schools, the sales of land and rentals furnishing the

ball and other games, if no admission fee is charged. necessary funds. School taxes are likewise levied in

History. — During the European War New Jersey each county, district and municipality. In 1917 pro- furnished to the United Stateis Army 105,207 men vision was made for part payment of transportation (2.80 per cent.): the members of the national guard expenses for normal students from distant parts of joinea the 28th Division at Camp McClellan, Alabama; the State. The State maintains the University of those of the national army, the 78th Division at Camp New Mexico at Albuquerque, the CoUe^ of Agncul- Dix. The sim:imary of casualties of the New Jersey ture and Mechanic Arts near Las Cruces m the MesiUa members of the American expeditionary force is as Valley, the New Mexico Normal University at Silver follows: deceased, 117 officers, 2244 men; prisoners. City, the School of Mines at Socorro, the Military 20 officers, 65 men; wounded, 219 officers, 7401 men. Institute at Roswell, the Spanish and American School

at £1 Rito, the Institute for the Deaf and the Insti-

New Mexico (cf. C. E., Xl — la), formerly tute for the Blind at Alamogordo. In 1920 there were

a territory of theUnited States, now a State, admitted 1430 public elementary scnools in the State, with

to the Union on 6 January, 1912, with an area of 81,399 enrolled pupils and 2752 teachers, and 71

122,634 square miles. The population in 1920 was public high schools with 257 teachers and 3870 pupils.

360,350* of which 18 per cent .was urban and 82.0 rural . The private schools number 38 and there are 26 Indian

The average number of inhabitants to the square mile schools with 2291 pupils and 141 teachers, maintained

is 2.9 as against 2.7 in 1910. The largest cities are by the Federal Government. Religious instruction in

Albuquerque (15.157), Santa F6 (703i3), and Las public schools is prohibited by law, but boards of

Vegas (4304) . Tne composition of the population is directors may open school-houses for the use of relig-

asToUows: whites, 334,673 (native 305,596, foreign- ioua societies, etc., at times outside school hours,

bom, 29,077); negro 5773; Indian 19,512; Chinese Bible readin^^ is neither permitted nor excluded. The

171; Japanese 251. In 1910 the illiterate members of Sisters' charitable institutions (hospitals, etc.) are

the population over ICWears of age numbered 48,697 State-aided, the appropriation for the purpose in 1919

or 20.2 per cent.; in 1920,41,637, or 15.6, a decrease being $12,()00. In 1917-18 the university received

of 4.66 per cent. for its income $133,169, and had (1919) a taaching

Economic CoNDmoNS. — Although the census of force of 92 professors and 406 students. The College

1920 reveals a decrease of 16.3 per cent, in the number of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts with 95 teachers

of farms since 1910 (1920, 29,844), the farm land area and 285 students, received both Federal and State

shows an increase of 116.6 percent. (1910, 11,270,021 aid, aggregating $298,122 in 1917-18. The combined

acres; 1920, 24,409,633 acres). The chief crops are valuation of the State's educational institutions is

com, wheat, oats, and kafir and milo. The output of about $2,000,000; while the annual expenditures

hay and forage totalled 693,807 tons, worth $12,852,- agio^gate $1,300,000. The laws goveming private

751 in 1919. Grazing is an important industry, for and parochial schools are aa foUows: No funds

in 1920 there were 1,300,000 cattle, valued at $63,- appropriated or levied for educational purposes shall

101,300. Sheep-raising is stiU on the decline, 8,300,- be used for the support of any sectarian, denomina-

804 pounds of wool being produced in 1919 as against tional or private scnools (XII.3) . All cnurch prop-

16,994,017 in 1909, althou^ the value of the wool erty, all property used for educational or chantable

increased from $3,131,971 m 1909 to $3,542,922 in puiposes, not used for private or corporate profit,

1919. The farms reported a total of 1,640,475 sheep. shaU be exempt from taxation. To complv with

In 1916 the Elephant Butte Dam was completed compulsory education regulations, courses of study

after five years of labor. It is the work of the United must be approved by the school board. Private

States Reclamation Service and forms the largest schools shall report to the county superintendent with

storage reservoir in the world, feedinp an irrigation regard to enrolment, number of teachers, and

system which covers 185,000 acres of land in New branches taught.

Mexico, Texas, and Mexico. The dam extends across Reugion. — According to the United States Census the canyons of the Rio Grande. In 1919 the legisla- of ReUgious Bodies (1916). the Catholics were more ture provided for the leasing of State lands for mineral than 84 per cent, of the cnurch membership of the purposes and for the retaining of the permanent State, wnich wsa 209,809, distributed as foUows: ownership of all oil lands with one-eightn royalty. Catholics 177,727; Methodists 11.767; Presbyterians New Mexico has valuable mineral resources, the most 4245; Baptists 6721; Disciples ot Christ 2284; Pro- important being coal (4.023,239 tons valued at testant Episcopalians 1718; other sects 5862. For $10,787,082 in 1918), ana copper (98,264,562 tons further religious and educational statistics see Santa valued at $24,271,347). The entire mineral produc- F£, Archdiocese op; Tucson, Diocese of. tion wss worth $40,631,024 in 1918. The summary Recent History. — New Mexico is the forty-sev- for manufactures for 1919 gives 387 establishments, enth State to be admitted to the Union. On 16 Jime. 6646 persons engaged in manufacturing, earning in 1910, the Senate passed the Bill granting statehood salaries and wages a total of $7,685,803. The capital to New Mexico, providing, however, that the pro- invested was $15,226,253 and the value of the prod- posed State should hold no legislative sessions before ucts $17,856,602. The principal industries, ranked 12 January, 1912, also stipulating that the State set