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lish language as required for the completion of the Catholics for every 1000 of the population, a gain of

fifth gnule of the public or private schoob shall at- 7.3 per cent, oger the censes of 1890: 24 Protestant

tend some day. evening or private school. Bible read- Episcopalians for each 1000. For further statistics

ing in the public schools is neither permitted nor ex- see New Yohk, Archdiocesb Of and ]ts suffragans

eluded. The laws governing private or parochial in the State.

schoob are as follows: The R^nts of the University Marbiage. — ^A marriage license must be ob-

of the State of New York shall prescribe courses in tained from the clerk of the town or city where a

citizenship and patriotism to be maintained and fol- woman resides or, if she is a non-resident, where the

lowed in all schools of the State. Similar courses marriage is solemnized. Both parties must appear

shaU be prescribed in private schoob. The Conmiis- before the issuer of the license. A city clerk of a

sioner of Education shall be responsible for the en- city of over 1,000,000 inhabitants mav solemnize a

forcement of this Act and shall cause to be inspected marriage upon a license issued by himself. To take or

and supervised the instruction to be given in such harbor any girl under eip^hteen years of age for the

subjects. The instruction required shall be: At a purpose of marriage without the consent of her

public school in which at least the six common school parents or guardian constitutes abduction. An action

branches of reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, the to annul her marriage may be brought by a woman

Englbh language, ana geo^aphy are taught in Eng- where she was under eighteen years of age at the time

lish; elsewhere than a public school, in the same sub- of the marriage and the consent of her parents or

jects^ taught in Enelisn by a competent teacher. No guardian was not had and the marriage was not con-

pubhc money shall be used for the support of any ed- summated and not ratified by mutu£u consent after

ucational institution of any religious denomination she attained the age of eighteen. After a divorce is

(1X4). Subjects taught in private schoob must be granted, re-marri^^ b forbidden to the guilty party

substantiiJly equivalent to those tau^t in public during the life of the spouse, unless, after three years

schoob. Courses in patriotism and citizenship shsil have ebpsed, proof b made of his or her uniform good

be prescribed in all public and private schoob. The conduct, when the defendant may be permitted by

school term of private schoob must be equal in length the court to marry again,

to that of public schoob. Sunday Laws. — ^The New York laws permit

In 1918 tnere were 2,421,283 children of school age barbers to work on Sundays only before one o'clock

(5-18), 11,898 public schoob with 1.672,311 pupib, and only in the city of New York and the village of

52,858 teachers, 964 public high schools and academies Saratoga Springs. Local authorities, either on their

with 197,119 pupib and 8375 teachers. In the 10 own initiative or upon the result of a local referendum,

normaipublic normal schoob there were 348 teachers are authorized to license Sunday baseball and other

and 7020 students. Moreover, the State has 133 sports. The question of Sunday theatres b left to the

vocational schoob. The total expenditure on edu- community.

cation in 1919 was $126,050,044; the city of New Militia. — Under the provbions of the Military York with 1862 pupib and 46,020 teachers spent Law of the State a new active organization was $45j765.043 in 1919. The 136 universities, pro- created in 1917 to take the place of the National fessionai and technical schoob had 5634 teachers and Guard, which was then in Federal service. It b part 52,043 students. The New York City College has an of the active militia of the State, b partly subject to enrolment of 14,473; West Point 701. The public Federal control, and receives rifles and ammunition statistics of the United States Bureau of Education from the Federal Government. (1920, BuUetin No. 3) show that 117 private schoob Recent History. — In 1911 laws were passed, and academies (not parochial schools) were con- re-apportioning Congressional dbtricts of the State, ducted under the auspices of the Catholic Church in providing for a direct State tax and direct primary- New York in 1918. In 1920 there were 300^000 in the voting, and regulating child labor. In 1913 Governor Catholic schoob. The United States Education William Sulzer was impeached and removed from Bureau (1920) reported that in 1918, 10,674 were office for misaoplication of party funds. He was regbtered in the Catholic secondary schoob alone, succeeded by Martin Glynn, a Catholic, through The Catholic Directory estimates the number of peo- whom State conventions were abolished and a sJiort pie under Catholic care, including the orphans and ballot law and workmen's compensation Act were other inmates of charitable institutions, as 350,198. adopted. Vocational and industrial education and Hie New York State Public Library has 506,000 medical inspection in schoob were provided for by volumes; the New York City Public Library has bw; vital statbtics were put under the State Depart- 2,306,471 books and 320,464 pamphlets, in all 2,626,- ment of Health. A new Education Bill (1916) made 935 volumes. provbion for town boards of education and for a

Reliqion. — ^According to the latest United States school board in every city of the State, making their Census of Religious I^nominations, the members powers unform. The former clause was repealed in of all denominations numbered 4,315,404, divided as the 1918 session. A constitutional convention was follows: Catholics, 2,745,552: Methodbt Epbcopali- held in 1915, but the revised constitution was over- ans, 328,250; Protestant Episcopalians, 227,685; whelmingly defeated in the November election. A Presbyterian Church in the Umted States of America, Child Welfare Board has been set up in each county 222,888; Baptbts Northern Convention, 182,443: and mothers' pensions allowed. The constitution was Jewish Congregations 112,924; Lutheran General amended in 1918 to reauire that all voters after Council 73,582: Reformed Church in America 66,773; 1 January, 1920, read ana write English. An income Congregational Churches 65,021; all other denomi- tax in the same year was pbced on all, even non- nations. 289,287. There were 8,780 church edifices, residents, who had their source of income in New 867 hsdls, and 5319 parsonages (valued at $28,782,- York State. The constitutionality of the bw was 609). The total value of church property was $293,- referred to the Supreme Court. State scholarships 210,904, and the debt $36,201 .46. The Sunday schoob, for all veterans of tne late war have been established. 8616 in number, were attended b^ 1,296^956 scholars. A bridge to be known as the Great Western Hi^way, The present bw of New York limits the mcome of the b to be built across the Mohawk River at Schenec- religious and charitable corporations of the State to tady.

$1,000,000: and the value of their property to $10,- A Department of State Police was established in the

000,000. The Catholics formed 63.6 per cent, of the 1918 session of the legisbture. The 1920 session will

total of the religious communicants, but only 44.6 be memorable for tne expulsion of the Socialist

cbim^ any membership whatever. There were 281 members of the Assembly, who were charged with