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ANOUOANISM 43 AKOUOAKISM

the chief object apparently being to arraxij|e a com- advanced Anglican likened it in importance to

mon baisiB of work among the various Frotestant the Savoy Conference of 1661, the work of which

mifisionaiy bodies there. An interdenominational the Kiknyu Conference has set itself to undo."

compact was drawn up whereby one district was to In the "Open Letter" of the bishop of Zanzibar,

be as^gned to each church exclusively. Doctrinally attacking the Kikuyu Conference, there was also

the "Federation" acknowledged the Bible as the complaint made against the book Fotmdations,"

rule of faith and practice; the Apostles' and written by seven Oxford mex^ and the attitude of

Nicene Creeds as a general expression of belief; the church authorities toward its editor was severely

and the vital importance of belief in the atoning criticized. This book treated as open questions

death of our Lord as the ground of for^ivene^. to be accepted or rejected freely by Anfflicans:

The Anj^can bishops of Mombasa (m which the necessity of the episcopate m the Christian

Kiku3ai is situated) and Uganda were present and -Church; the institution by Christ of any church at

with the representatives of the other churches all and of any sacraments; the reliability of the

pledged themselves: to recognize common member- Bible as a witness; the Resurrection of our Lord

ship between federated churches; to establish a from the dead, and His divinity. No public official

common form of church organization; to admit condemnation was taken in the case, although six

to any pulpit a preacher recognized by his own of the authors were Anglican clergymen. The

church; to admit to communion a recognized mem- editor, who had also contributed one of the essays,

ber of any other church; to draw up and follow was merely asked to resign his chaplaincy "privately

conmion courses of instruction both for candidates and quietly." The fact that in these controversies

for baptism and candidates for ordination. Finally a fight was made for conservative doctrine and

at the end of the conference the Anglican bishop practice is interpreted by many as evidencing the

of Mombasa (although theoretically the agreement presence of a strong High Church or "Catholic"

needed ratification by the authorities in England) party in Anglicanism; the truth is, however, that

"celebrated the Hoty Communion," according to m each case the point at issue was not Hiffh

the Anglican ritual, m a Presb3rterian Church, and Church doctrine as such, it was merely the tradi-

admitted to commimion as many of the Protcastant tional Anglican doctrine that was at stake, and the

delegates as presented themselves. Li this he was fact that only 700 clergymen were found to request

not without precedent, for the bishop of Hereford a definite pronouncement by the church authorities

in England had about a year before acted in a on the doctrines called in questions by "Founda-

similar manner. tions" shows only too clearly that the drift is

The action of the two bishops, on the two points toward liberal Protestantism or doctrinal indiffer-

of the proposed federation and the intercommunion entism in the Anglican Church to-day. (For the

service, was criticized by the High Church Bishop third point of complaint voiced by the Bishop of

of Zanzibar, who had refused to attend the con- Zanzibar see Ritualism).

ference. Eiis complaint was referred by the Arch- This same tendency is also somewhat apparent bishop of Canteroury to the Consultative Body in the attitude of the Anglicans on the question of bishops, the question being whether "due con- of church unity. In 1920 thd Lambeth Conference flideration being given to precedent and to all the issued an appeal and some resolutions differing facts of the case, the action of the bishops who somewhat from the Lambeth Quadrilateral. The arranged and conducted the admittedly abnormal Conference (1) speaks of union of communions service was consistent or inconsistent with princi- rather than of churches; of the communions of pies accepted by the Church of England." The the East and the West, of episcopal and non-epis- decision was substantially as follows: (1) Minis- copal communions; (2) it speaks of ministries of ters of other bodies may be welcomed as visitors grace in all of them ; (3) it disclaims the idea, even to preach in Anglican churches, if accredited by the right, of pronouncing upon the validity of the the diocesan bishops; (2) non-Anglicans may bie sacraments of other communions; (4) it considers admitted to communion in Anglican churches under that the Creed does not impose a test, but that authority of diocesan bishops, on acceptance of it is offered and accepted as a symbol of unity, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the deity of Christ, Actually these proposals bear considerable resem- and the absolute authority of the Scriptures; blance to the "federation plan" of Kiku3^. No (3) Anglicans must not receive the communion results are as yet (1922) apparent and in fact, broad from mmisters not episcopally ordained or whose as are the conditions, the Federal Council of Free orders are otherwise irregular; (4) it is wisest to Churches and the National Free Church Coimcil, abstain from such services as the closing service both of Scotland, practically rejected them as stand- held at Kikuyu. The Archbishop of Canterbury ing too strongly for episcopacy, while the Metho- in 1915 issued a statement embodying the report of dists have formally rejected the overtures, refusing the Consultative Body. The controversy which to consider reordination of their clergy, had arisen when the Kikuyu incident first came to In missionary work the Church of England has light, broke out aeain, the High Church clergy maintained its attitude against Protestant propa- objecting to what they considered a minimizing of ganda in Catholic countries, notably in the World Anglican doctrine. The archbishop refused to Missionary Conference of 1910, at Edinburgh. As prosecute the bishops of Uganda and Mombasa, a consequence the American missionaries devised and the Anglican Church had once more clearly the "Panama Conference" (see Protestantism) for shown its policy to be that of laissez fmre, the purpose of furthering Protestant work in Latin

The incident, with two other cases cited also by America. (See also Rituausm and Book or Com-

the bishop of Zanzibar in his complaint, the wide- mon Prayer.)

spread controversy, and the decision in the matter, «?^acb, Same Q^tianM 0/ the Day dgndon, Wi?);_ Giuww.

-.!!-.--. *^ :^A- i.^ I '.1 . J.U ^ .fcU J 'he EccUtui Anglteana in Calholie World, XCVIII (1914),

seem to mdicate plamly that the preponderance 833; Nankivel, XiAuytt: the Neto 8ituatum in Catholic World,

of authonty and of opinion to-day in the Anglican Cil (1915), 32; BftincN, Xtibuyu (with bibliographv) in Dvblm

Church leans toward the "Protestant" or Low ««»'»«^!f/ W^ i^?l*>v ^' "i"^¥?t' /^iJ?*71x^^.^ ^""*'

r<u...^k *.»^.. r\t *u VI -J A au !_• il exposition) m Hxhbert Journal, XII (1913-14), 481; Knok,

Church party. Of the Kikuyu incident the bishop Some Loo»e Stones (London, 1913), (Anglican answer ti

of Zanzibar said "there has not been a Conference Foundations; the author later became a Catholic); Idem (as

of such importance to the life of the Ecclesia ?,t v^A^'m'o^aX ^^^S"" °^ Anglicani»m in Dublin Review,

A •«»!;.»»«.- JL^^ i.u^ -D / A- »i tT'i -"^^"r CLXII (1918), 25; Ollud jlsv Ckowe, A Dictionary of Engltth

AngllCana since the Reformation," while another church History (London, 1919) ; Year Book of the Chwchet