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of such movements as the World Couference; a illustrates well the point in question here, while

ilclegate may indeed reject a creed as a trammel- its brief span of life serves to indicate the futility

ling, binding, intellect-hampering ball and chain, of such movements when not firmly based on

but the creedal" and non-creedal" churches, spiritual foundations. This movement was launched

(i. e. those that hold a creed as necessary and those in December, 1918, as a union of Protestant organi-

that reject its necessity respectively), are for all zations in their '^program of Christian service and

that no nearer imion today, and, what is logically the performance of their common task." Not

more remarkable, the various non-creedal" sects without some opposition it succeeded in eliciting

are equally unable to effect union among them- the support of about forty denominational and

selves, and in each case the true final reason for interdenominational boards and societies. At first

failure is the insistence upon "creed." ostensibly a co-operative movement of mission

A correct interpretation of this anomaly is the boards and societies, it soon set its hand to other

explanation that the churches have practically re- works such as education, ministerial relief and pen-

jected the necessity of a creed for individual mem- sions, supervision of eleemosynary institutions, and

bers; but they retain the cr^ed as obligatory on investigation of industrial conditions. Numbering

the church and its teachers. In practice this dis- among its sponsors many prominent financial lead-

tinction is not of very great value; an attitude of ers, it set out to acquire a fund of $336,000,000

indifferentism pervades the sects today, and the with which to accomplish its purposes. Within a

doctrine of exclusive salvation (Outside the church comparatively short period $180,000,000 had been

there is no salvation"), though formerly held by raised and a vast organization was functioning at

most of them is now practically rejected by the a monthly expense of $1,000,000. About a year

majority. One minister, speaking against the after its inception, expenses were reduced to $75^000

useless multiplication of churches," sums up very monthly, when about twenty-two of the denomma-

well his ideas on this point: "What a blessing it tions co-operating signified their intention to with-

would be if communicants of churches could rid draw, while some, notably the Baptists and Presby-

themselves of the idea that the only true church is terians, had definitely severed connections with the

the one to which they belong. There is no church movement. Finally, early in 1921, the organization

that has fully apprehended Christian truth or that was forced to close its books and retire from busi-

mirrors flawlessly the ideals of Jesus Christ. There ness, in debt to New York banks for lar^e sums

are no 'Christians only' in the fullest sense of the advanced, — loans which the various denominations

term. . . . God has not given to any one race, any which guaranteed them are gradually paying off.

one nation, any one religion, a monopoly of Truth Many reasons have been suggested as explain-

or elected any particular communion to be the ing the failure of the movement. From a Catholic

custodian of orthodoxy, not even nrfjr own. ..." point of view, it would seem (and this is the view

Such indifferentists do not perceive how utterly of most of the Protestant criticisms, of which there

unworthy of God it is to think that He should were not a few), that the movement represented

purposely have failed to tixake any one church the the crassly material side of Protestantism and died

custodian of His revelation; they fail utterly to from sheer spiritual inanition. The very just criti-

realize how hopeless and futile, if their premises cisms which many of the sects directed against it,

be true, it would be to cling to any church, which and its final collapse are rather to the credit of the

by their admission has at most only a part of the "orthodox" Protestants, although it must be admit-

truth. ted that one of the strongly contributory causes of

II. WoRK.—The facts set forth above go far to the failure was the refusal of the "unchurched" to explain the emphasis on the material rather than support it with any great financial contributions, the spiritual in foreign mission work. The belief they having been counted on to finance the cen- of the individual matters little hence rather is a tral organization while the denominational contri- community approached as a whole with the inten- butions were to have been expended proportion- tion of transforming them without regard to the ately among the denominations themselves, individuals into a "corporate Christian commun- ^ To sum up the general situation, while the sav- ity." As a Baptist speaking of his own sect, words ing faith" (confidence in one's justification) of the which are applicable quite generally to Protestants, early reformers is rather generally retained, faith says, "We share a transfer of emphasis from effort as meaning articles of belief to which intellectual to rescue individual souls from perdition to the assent is to be given receives but slight attention endeavor to create Christian communities. ... in Protestantism today. The "orthodox" still [Hence] we have no longer an exclusive or pre- strive to maintain the traditional doctrines, but ponderant interest in evangelistic work in the actually Protestantism is tending more and more strict sense of the term, but found hospitals, main- to resolve itself into, or at least to concentrate it- tain schools, conduct industrial work." Naturally, self around, the one doctrine of the "Brotherhood such works have a certain value, and in most cases of Man," more or less materially interpreted, for- the good will of the promoters is also to be pre- petting that the command on which that doctrine sumed; it is, however, a strange anomaly to find is based is only the second of the Law, the first among those who at least theoretically still cling duty being to love God, and forgetting also that to the doctrine of "justification by faith alone" the first and higher duty of love of neighbor calls what is practically tantamount to the diametric- us to minister to the soul of the individual before ally opposite, "justification lay works alone." we care for his body and his material welfare. The

A similar tendency to stress the material side is Brotherhood of Man, in other words, means noth-

noticeable also in domestic work, especially in the ing, or very little, unless interpreted in the light

United States. As significant examples it is suf- of the eternal truths which are essentially un-

ficient to mention the New Era Movement among changeable, and which must forever be centered

the Presbyterians, the Centenary "drive" of the around the Creation and the Incarnation and all

Methodists and the Tercentenary Fund of the that those truths imply.

Congregationalists, in all of which rather excessive Under such conditions as outlined above it would

emphasis was laid upon the financial side of relig- be natural to expect to find a disinclination on the

ion and its works. Going further than any of the part of Protestants to enter the ministry. Such a

instances cited, the Interchurch World Movement state of affairs exists; indeed so noticeable is it.