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(1912); J. Lebreton, "L'Encyclique et la th6ologie ^,¥. of the Moniimanja (1913); Ricmy, Atuhonty and

mnHprniat**" nOORV MM Rniirrhanv P^ripr pf $«'»^*<>«« ^^f (1M6) ; Cuthbbt and Othkis. Ood and the moaemiSte, UWb;, mm. JJOUrcnany, rener ec Supemaiural (I92I); Baudriluutt, The Catholic Church,

Tixeront, "Conferences apologetiques (1910) ; MM. RenaUaance and ProtetlarUum (1908); DC PouLPiqucT. Le

  • ^ "*•'**' »-•• •••■«.. w««-~^.«-. WW ~-~ ..—.^w.w ^-w--,,. ^■' ~~— » »*-■«■ v^***«»»«»j A rav A« ■•• irr If V/* At'CttyH/rW VU VUIB., AVIV It / i

A prominent feature of the Catholic reaction G^/»«"' ^^ Ori^mef (6th ed., 1910); Idem, Le« Croyancet

pfMLini^ MoHpmism in thp inrrPAMpH Pmnhiusin IaicI nn S***^*^** *'. ^ Science de te Nature (1908); Etmieu, Le

againOT Moaemsm W tne mcreasea enipnasiSiaiao^ Naturalume devant la Science (1921); WiNDLE. TAe CAurcA

Scnptural studies. The Biblical Commission, estab- and Science (1917); Hugubnt, Critique et Catholique; I. Apolo-

lished in 1902 under Pope Leo XIII, received a new ?^Krt<« <4th «*d , 1919^; LAitoAN Apolopetica (1921); Bmsnan, significance and importance after the publication of '«»'^»^^* Theolog^ae Naturaiis 0921) the Encyclical Pascendi. The authority of its de- Charles F. Aiken. cisions, questioned by some, was defined in the Apostasy (cf. C. E., I-624c), is of three kinds: Motu Proprio of Pius X, November 18, 1907 apostasy from the Christian Faith, apostasy from (Prsestantia Scripturse Sacrse), making them the religious life, and apostasy from orders. AU apos- guide-posts of Catholic teaching. Two years later, tates from the Christian Faith incur excommunica- the Pontifical Biblical Institute was established in tion reserved specially to the pope, by the very Rome and put in charge of Jesuit scholars. As fact of their crime; unless they repent on being the apostolic letter of authorization indicates, its warned, they are to be deprived of all ecclesiastical purpose is to safeguard Catholic students of Scrip- benefices, dignities, pensions, offices, or posts, if ture from the grave danger of having recourse to they have any, to be declared infamous and if they non-C)atholic teachers and of being thereby imbued are clerics, on being warned again, they are to be with Modernist errors. In the interests of the punished by canonical deposition. If an apostate Institute, a new periodical, "Biblica," issued every affiliates formally with a non-Catholic sect or pub- three months, was presented to the world of scholars licly adheres to it he incurs infamy ipso facto; if in 1920. It is edited by the professors of the Insti- he is a cleric he loses ipso facto any office he holds, tute, the chief editor being the noted scholar, Dr. and after a fruitless warning he is to be degraded. Fonck, S. J., and is destined to publish many articles Those who receive, favor or defend apostates, for- of apologetic value. merly incurred the same excommunication; this is

The article on Apologetics in the first volume of no longer the case, though the censure is incurred this encyclopedia makes mention of the so-called by the publishers (not the printers, as heretofore) of "Immanence School," that was in vogue twenty works of apostates defending apostasy, heresy, or years ago in France, and of the subiective Christian schism. Contrary to the former discipline, the Code philosophy of apologists like Olle-Laprune and enacts that infamy, one of the punishments men- Fonsegrive. The loyalty of these writers to Catho- tioned above, does not affect those who are related lie faith was unquestioned, but after the condem- by consanguinity or af&aity to the party excom- nation of Modernism in 1907, their subjective municated; his children, however, woulcj be pro- philosophy fell into discredit, being so strongly sug- hibited from receiving orders as long as he re- gestive of the philosophy of Kant as to be open to mained unrepentant. Apostasy debars from the suspicion of leading to Modernism. ecclesiastical burial and from requiem or memorial

The Modernism of liberal Protestantism does not Masses, but this is so only when notorious, and

mark the furthest outposts of rationalistic specula- the party has died without giving signs of repent-

tion. Beyond is the riot of ever-shifting theories ance. Catholics are most earnestly urged in the

on monistic evolution, on the physico-chemical ex- canons to avoid marriage with apostates; if they

planation of the activities of living organisms from are deaf to this warning the parish priest must

the microbe to man, on the relation of human not assist at the marriage without the permission

knowledge to an objective world, on religious of the bishop. Any person who knowingb^ receives

psychology. The numerous exponents of these orders from an apostate prelate incurs a suspension

theories, strong in criticizing the work of their pre- a diinnis reserved to the Holy See. decessors and at the same time weak in setting up Absolution of apc^ates in the internal forum, or

any enduring monument of their own, show an confession, is specially reserved to the Holy See ;

atheistic trend that bodes no good for Christian but if the crime of apostasy is brought to the exter-

faith and gives rise to serious misgivings when one nal forum of the local ordinary in any way, the

considers that many of these leaders of the blind bishop, or vicar capitular, but not the vicar general

are teachers of the Christian youth in the great without a special mandate, may by his ordinary

universities of the land. To neutralize these teach- power absolve the penitent in the external forum

ings there is need of more works like those of after obtaining from him a judicial abjuration (that

Father E. Wassmann, S.J., "Modem Biology - and is one made m the presence of the local ordinary

the Theory of Evolution" (1910) ; "The Berlin Dis- or of his delegate ana two witnesses), and observing

cussion of the Problem of Evolution" (1909) ; B. the other legal requisites. Having been thus freed

Windle, "What Is Life?" (1908) ; "Facts and Theo- from the censure, the penitent may be absolved

ries" (1912); J. Donat, S.J., "The Freedom of Sci- from his sin by any confessor. The bishop's power

ence" (1914); Carrigou-Lagrange, "Dieu, son Ex- in this matter is ordinary and may, therefore, be

istence et sa Nature." delegated, such delegation to priests being the usual

Besides the works mentioned above, the following practice in the United States, are of value for apologetic study: Apostates from religious life are those who being

OmcEE, Thepipgia Fundamentalia (2 vols., 1918); Essra- professed with simple or solemn perpetual vows

Maubbach, Religion, Chrutentum, und Kvrche (3 vols., 1913); il^,,^ *u^:- .^i:^:^..« u^..«^ :ilr««.;4-:«M«4'AU* ««*;fk ♦k**

DALES (ed.) Dictidnnaire ApoiogHique de la Foi Catholique. leave their religious house illegitimately, With the

(This monumental work, betnm in 1911 and appearing in parts intention of not returning, or WhO, having gone OUt

Vlftfll**"* J**^^ complete); Walshb. Principle* oj Apologetici ^ith permission, do not retum, in order to with-

(1918): BATlfTOL. The Pnmttwe Church and Cotholtcifm j«„,^ xi ,^,^u,^Ji c^^^^ .^i:^;^..^ ««U^^:»maa ShaVw a

(1911): Idem. Orpheug et VEvangiie (1910); Finlat. The draw themselves from religious obedience. Such a

Church of Christ (1915) ; Barkes, The Early Church in the perSOn S eVil intent IS presumed by the laW 11 Wltiun