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AQXniiA 51 ABABIA

fessioDs of seculars, licitly or validly. The Code tary operations which equally served his purpose of makes no mention of approbation in this technical weakening his rivals by encroaching on tne domain sense as essential for absolution. While the canon of the Vali of Hejaz imtil by 1913, ne was the most 877 says that local ordinaries are not to grant juris- cfifective power in Mecca and Jidda. In the sum- diction and religious superiors are not to grant mer of 1915 he opened negotiations with Great jurisdiction or permission to hear confessions except Britain, who guaranteed the autonomy of Hejaz in to those who have been proved by examination or the event of a successful revolt, who are known in some other way to be competent Kingdom of Hejaz. — On 5 June, 1916, Husein Ibn theologians, canon 872. speaking of the minister of Ali, proclaimed his independence, and in November, Penance, says merely tnat in addition to the power 1916, issued a proclamation assuming the title King of orders the minister requires ordinary or dele- of Hejaz. The Treaty of Peace with Turkey recog- gated power of jurisdiction over the penitent in nizes Hejaz as a free and independent state. By order to absolve him validly from sin. (See Jubis- the end of 1917, when Husein had borne the title DICTION.) of "Malik" for more than a yea^ and successfully

Aqnila, I-€61a] the Holy See. Most Rev. Pellegrino Francesco "J*"* ^^^J^^ ^^ ^'^^^! cAc^pt u«, mcuiuu. xu

Stagni, Appointed to this see 18 February, 1907, ^^^^ ,!^±:^r^^^^^ X^

waT transferred to the titular see of Ancyra, 1 Jan- ?,\ *Jl?^&* J^l !n?^*i%«tnl «IS?f^onf ^f

uary, 1916. He was succeeded by the present arcL- ^"l^^fi^^^^^^^u,^'"^^ ^^^LZ^L.^t^J^l nf

bishop, Most Rev. Adolfo Turchi, b. at Balignano, ^S^ ^^^ ~^m^I.M^^n ^in.?t.d"^"nn,^!


•.ituim x^ioxiup ui v-«""p^, pt umuocu ^"zJ""^ .. \ •" Medina (40,000) : the chief port is Jidda on the

diocese of Aqmla 17 July, 1918. By 1920 statistics S«3^ c* T;™;i„*;^« •»*v*wa w**

there are in this diocese 107,800 Catholics, 135 ^^ ^ea, populati^ 30,000.

parishes, 200 secular and 29 regular clergy. 25 semi- , ^^f Emiratb of Nbjd and Haba, the more power-

narians, 242 churches or chapels, 32 brothere, and fj^ ^^ ^he two Central Arabian principalities, has

100 sisters ^^ capital at Riyadh, whence the Saud dynasty

exercises jurisdiction over the neighboring groups

AqnlnOy Bora and Fontecoryo, Diocese of of oases. The present Emir is Abd el-Aziz es-Saud,

(Aquinatbnbis, Soranbnsis bt Pontib Curvi; of. who expelled the Turks from Hasa in 1913 and

C. E., I-662d), in the province of Caserta, Italy, is 1m^« extended his influence to include Hofuf in the

directly subject to the Holy See. The present in- region of the Persian Gulf. Estimated population,

cumbent, Rt. Rev. Antonio Maria Janotta, b. 1847, 250,000 inhabitants. South Nejd has about 50,000

was appointed to this see in 1900 and made an inhabitants. Central Nejd, about 100,000; Kasin,

assistant at the pontifical throne 28 March, 1913. 50,000; Stasa, 50,000.

By 1920 statistics Aquino has a Catholic population The Emirate op Jbbbl Shammab is ruled by

of 52,150, 19 parishes, 64 secular and 8 regular clergy, Abdullah ibn Mitah, who succeeded on the assassi-

30 seminarians, 220 churches or chat)els, 10 brothers, nation of his father, Ibn Rashid, in May, 1920. Its

and 7 sisters. Sora has a population of 95,200, capital is at Hail and its population, including the

45 parishes, 168 secular and 30 regular clergy, 35 Shammar, numbers 200,000 (estimated),

seminarians, 220 churches or chapels, 19 brothers. The PRiNapUTB of Asir is ruled by Mohammed

and 59 sisters. The population of Pontecorvo num- ibn Ali-el-Idrisi, a member of the Idrisi family.

bers 12,050, and there are 8 parishes, 29 secular and The estimated population is about 1,000,000; the

10 regular clergy, 25 churches or chapels, 27 brothers, capital, Sabiyah.

and 24 sistero. The Immamat^ of Yemen, with its capital at

Sana, is ruled by Yahya Mohammed Hamid ed-Din,

Arabia (cf. C. E., I-663a). — ^A territory in western and has an area of about 75,000 sqaure miles and

Asia, containing the new Kingdom of Hejaz, the an estimated population of one million. The chief

Emirates of Nejd and Hasa, Jebel Shammar, and ports are Mocha and Hodeida, population 40,000.

Kerak, the principate of Asir, the Imamate of The Sultanate of Koweit, on the northwestern

Yemen, the British Protectorate of Aden, and the coast of the Persian Gulf, is ruled by Ahmed ibn

Sultanates of Oman and Koweit. The total area Jobar, who succeeded his uncle in March, 1921. The

is approximately 1,000,000 square miles with a popu- Sultan is subsidized by the British government

lation of between five and six millions. which maintains a political agent at his court. The

At the outbreak of the European War, Turkey estimated population is about 50,000. was in possession of the whole Red Sea littoral The Emirate of Kerak is governed by Abdullah, from Akaba to Mocha, with the single exception of sen of King Husein. Kerak is Trans jordania. Idrisi 's territory, a stretch of about 100 miles from The Protectorate of Aden. — ^By the Anglo- Shukeik to Wadi Ain. The Ottoman holding aver- Turkish Convention of 1914 the boundary of Aden aged inland about 150 miles, but its connection with was prolonged through the desert to a point on the the main body of the Empire was slender and coast opposite Bahrein in the Persian Gulf. The precarious. The oases of Teima and Kheibar were settlement also includes the island of Perim at the held, not by the Turks, but by Ibn Rashid of entrance of the Red Sea, and is subject to the Bom- Hail; Yeipen in the north was free from the Turks, bay government. The government is administered also, and the region east of Sana. When war broke by a political resident (who is also General Officer out, Great Britain feared a holy war on the part of commanding the troops) with four assistants. The the Modems, the possible loss of Aden, and the India office has hitherto exercised internal adminis- destruction of the British trunk route to the East, trative control; the Foreign Office has been re- in search of a local ally to combat these dangers sponsible for political questions, and the War Office Great Britain naturally turned to the Grand Sherif for military questions. The area is about 75 sauare Husein, who desired the independence of the Meccan miles, but with the Protectorate included it is aoout Sherif ate. He had been astute enough to undertake 9000 square miles; the area of Perim is 5 square for Turkey, who had nominated him in 1908, mili- miles. A railway waq begun in 1915 for military