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up to the level of hia other library products. Nearly selling for a temporal price anything intrinsically aU of them are inspired by the patriotic motive of spiritual — e.g., the sacraments or indulgences — or sustaining his countrymen m their national sufferings anything temporal annexed to something spiritual and are said to have a deep significance for his Polish in such a way that the temporal cannot exist without readers: His Quo Vadis is the first one that made the splntusd—e.g., an ecdesiastical benefice — or a him known to the Engdish-speaking world. That, spiritual thing which is even partially the object of the "Pan Michael," "With Fire and Sword," and "The contract — c. g., the consecration in the sale of a con- Deluge" are rated by some as the most brilliant of his secrated chalice; the latter is the giving or exchanging books. They have been frequently dramatized with of a temporal thing annexed to a spiritual for a similar great success. In 1905 he received the Nobel Prize thing, or a spiritual thing for another spiritual thing, of Literature. or even a temporal thing for a temporal thing, if this

is forbidden by the Church on account of the daneer

SigtLenza, Diocese op (Segxtntina: cf. C. £., of irreverence towards something spiritual resulting

XIII — 788), in Spain, suffragan of Toledo, has an therefrom. Under the Code in speaking of simony

area of approximately 4188 square miles with a the words buy, 8dle, exchange, etc., are use in a wide

population of 155,000 practically all Catholics. The sense, so as to include any agreement, even non-

statistics for 1921 record 353 parishes with 471 executed or tacit in which the simoniacal intention

churches, 384 secular and 20 regular priests, 2 can be deduced from the circumstances, even if it

Brothers, 2 religious houses for men, 12 convents has not been expressly manifested. There is no

with 232 Sisters (Franciscans, Conceptionists, Ber- simony, however, when an offering is accepted or

nardines, Ursulines, Benedictmes^ Little Sisters of asked not as a price for, but on the occasion of spiritual

the Poor, Sisteis of St. Anne, Sisters of Charity), ministrations, for the support of religion and its

1 home, 4 hospitals, 1 seminary with 132 seminaiians. ministers, when this is done in acordance with the The present mcumbent of the see, Mgr. Eustaquio sacred canons or a recognized legitimate custom — Nieto y Martin, was born at Zamora in the Diocese e.g. offerings for Masses, marriages, baptism, etc. of Madrid-Alcala, on 12 March, 1866, ordained in But as the Code says "in the administration of the 1891, appointed ceconomus and later rector of the sacraments the minister must not for any cause or Concepcion Church in Madrid, named bishop of onan^occasion, ask for or exact directly or indirectly, Sigiienza on 22 August, 1916, and consecrated on 27 anything beyond the offering fixed for the whole December following, on the resignation of Mgr. ecclesiastical province by the provincial council or Toribio Minguella y Aroedo (q. v.). at a meeting of the bishops of the province with the

approval of the Holy See." If a priest, therefore, Simla, Archdiocese of (Simlensis; cf. C. E.. should demand more than the statutory or customary XIII — 796), in India, establi^ed in 1910. is still fee he would be guilty of at least disobedience and governed by the Most Rev. A. E. J. Kenealy of the injustice and, according to some, even of simony. English Capuchins, who have charge of the mission. A suspicion of heresy is incurred by anyone, not He was b. in Wales, 1864, entered the Franciscans excepting a bishop, who knowingly administers or 1879, was ordained 1887, taught philosophy 1888-89: receives any sacrament simoniacaliy; in addition a first rector of the Franciscan College, Onord; general cleric, but not a bishop, would incur suspension re- depositor of his order 1908; consecrated 1910. The served to the Holy See. If simony is committed in ecclesiastical boundaries are on the North Kashmir the conferring of any ecclesiastical office, benefice, or and Kafristan, on the South Rajputana, on the dignity, it renders the collation null and void; this East Agra, and on the West Lahore. In 1921 the is the case if the beneficiary was not aware of the diocesan statistics record the total population as simoniacal act of the collator and a third party, unless about 5 millions (Hindus, Mahommedcois, Punjabus, the simony was committed against the positive wish Ladakbus and a variety of mountain tribes) , Catholics of the beneficiary or without nis knowledge but with numbering 2^1; 7 parishes; 11 churches; 1 mission; the intent to defraud him; persons guilty of this form 20 stations; 12 Capuchin and 3 secular priests; 44 of simony incur excommunication simply reserved to nuns; 1 women's training college, 5 teachers, 32 stu- the Holy See: they lose ipso facto ana forever what- dents; 3 girls' high schools, 40 teachers, 448 students: ever right ot election, presentation or nomination

2 elementary schools, 6 teachers. 100 pupils. All they may have had^ and if they are clerics they are to these schools receive a ^;rant-in-aia from the Govern- be suspended. It is expressly laid down in the law ment. There are sodalities of tJie Children of Mary that any deduction from the revenue or compensa- and the Franciscan tertiaries, and a Catholic Club at tion or payment to be made to the collator ^ patron or Simla. Among those who have died since 1912 may other Person, by the cleric at his induction is simonia- be mentioned Fr. Denis, O.S.F.C. (10 Dec., 1914), cal. Those who traffic in indulgences incur excom- who fled from Rome when it was captured by the munication reserved simply to the pope. The Piedmontese and devoted his remaining years to the censure formerly affected those who trafficked in other missions; Fr. AmphianPlunket (10 Jan., 1915), born spiritual favors as well; those who trade in Mass in the United States, who was a Christian Brother stipends are to be punished by the ordinary if neces- for years in India, and was later ordained. Among B&iy by suspension or privation of benefice or office, the notable events have been the establishment of or in case of lay persons by excommunication — the "Simla Times," a Catholic weekly, by Archbishop formerly the penalty was excommunication incurred Kenealy; the opening of a missionary colony at ipso facto,

Madonnapur in Sirsa; and the golden jubilee of St.

Francis High School, Simla. Despite the small Sinn Fein. See Ireland

number of priests. Simla supplied three chaplains bj « t^ ,oi # i-i ts

during the war. ^. Stanislaus O'Brien, O.S.T.C., ^f^^\^^^^^S .9^ ^^^^^J^^^l^'^ .""i: ^; E.,

ranking as a major, saw service in France and on sea, f^^^;7 1 ' « ^ ' Switzeriand, dependent ^durectly on

was awarded several medals, and died after his return Jhe Holy See,, almost co-termmous with Le Valais.

from service owing to the hardships he had endured The present Bishop, Mgr. Victor Bieler, b. at Tcher-

for nearly seven years. ^V'^1^^' ^"?, ^ 7 March, 1881, was ordamed on 7

  • ^ July, 1907, and after actmp as chancellor and pro-

Sixnony (cf. C. E., XIV — la), may be an offence fessorof canonlawwasappomtedon26May, 1919, in

against the Divine or merely against ecclesiastical succession to Mgr. Abbet, who had died on 12 July,

law. The former is deliberate intention of buying or 1918. The diocese has 133 parishes, of which 2 are