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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/87

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The area of Western Hungary, awarded to Austria veto power over measures enacted by the National in 1920, consists of 1,684 square miles and has an Council. The two Chambers together form the estimated population of 345^082. Compared with Federal Assembly, which, however, meets only in the c6rresponding figures for 1910, the census of two emergencies — to declare war and to elect the 1920 shows a loss of 227,209, or 3.6 per cent. It has Federal President. The Federal Assembly met on been estimated that the number of Austrians killed 10 November, 1920, the session being preceded by in battle was 160,000 to 180,000 and the total loss high Mass for the first time since pre-war days, due directly or indirectly to the war, 184,461. A The national flag consists of three horizontal stripes, striking dii^roportion between the sexes is noted, the top and bottom being red, and the center the IS^ census revealing 1,089 women to every white. There are two principal political parties, 1,000 men. Socialists (not Bolshevist) and Christian Erocialist

The principal towns are Vienna, with a population (Catholic). of 1,841,326; Graz, 157,032; Linz, 93,473; Innsbruck, Education .-^There are two classes of elementary 55,659; Salzburg, 36,450. In 1918 there were 87,594 schools, the Volksschulen and Biirgerschulen, of births, 40,738 marriages, 166,378 deaths, 1,779 di- which the former teach the first principles of re- vorces. li^ion, reading, writing, arithmetic, natural science,

Reuoion. — Religious liberty is one of the funda- history, geography, and drawing, and the latter znental laws of the republic and the principle is carry instruction in these subjects farther and add embodied in the Treaty of St. Germain (article 63). to them others such as book-keeping, geometry, and In 1920 there were 5,979,667 Catholics (94.17), 165,007 in certain cases, music and modem languages. At- Protestants (2.60), 189,758 Jews (2.99), and 19,021 tendance is obligatory from the ages of six to four- others (0.30). Before the Great War there were 53 teen, or in some provinces, from six to^ twelve. As dioceses in Austria^Hungar^ ; in the Republic at regards religious teaching, which occupies the chief present there are six; the Archdiocese of Vienna, place in 'the curriculum, the ecclesiastical authorities with the suffragan dioceses of St. Polten or St. of the various recognized denominations have access Hippolitus, and Linz; the Archdiocese of Salzburg, to the schools and the clergy are bound to give with suffragan dioceses of Gurk, and Scckau or a certain modicum of religious instruction in the Graz (q. v.). The diocese of Brixen formerly a Vo^/cssc/itiZen without payment; but if remuneration suffragan of Salzburg, has been made an exempt becomes due it is drawn from public funds. Aa diocese, and retains its ecclesiastical limits notwith- regards the language question, the rule is that the standing the partition of its territory by the Treaty provincial school council which is presided over by of St. Germain. Catholic organization has been the governor of the province, and includes educa- strengthcned and unified in its fight to uphold the tional experts, clergy, and representatives of the indissolubility of marriage and to combat other local Diet, should determine what language or Ian- morally pemicioiis legislation urged bv the Socialist guages are to be tausht in any school. An opportu- party, as well as in its opposition to the proselytism nity is always afforaed to learn German, of Protestant sects who would take advantage of The immediate educational authority is the di&- the material wants of the people to upset their trict school council, representative of the rate payers spiritual allegiance. The Christian Socialist (Catho- and the parish. Between this and ^e provincial lie) party won in the 1920 elections, and for the first school council is another body, the county school time since 1871 Austria has a Catholic premier in council, which, besides determining questions re- the person of Doctor Ma3nr, Chancellor of the Con- specting the building and stafBing of schools, regu- fcderation, and Minister of Forei^ Affairs. The lates the affairs of private elementary schools and Chairman of the Christian Socialist party is Dr. kindergartens.

Ignatz Seipel, a Catholic priest and a powerful In 1918 there were 4,763 public and private ele- personality in the politics of new Austria. Minister mentary schools with 30,667 teachers and 914,258 of Public Works under the Emperor Charles and a pupils. Secondary education is carried on by gym- member of the Assembly since its establishment, naaia and reaZsc/iuZen. public or private; the former he is the only member of the old monarchy to re- furnish a classical education; tne latter a modem tain his influence. education. In 1917-18 there were 73 gymnasia with

The sufferings of religious and priests in Austria 20,955 pupils; and 38 realschulen with 14,632 pupils. are intense; lack of sumcient and proper food, and There are also 4,000 technical institutes in which of clothing, are serious hindrances to their work the knowledge of different trades and professions of Christian education and charity. The Catholic may be pursued, and technical high schools for organizations of Austria, though they give heroic instruction in agriculture, architecture, chemistry, service, are unable to meet the immense demands, and engineering. The political changes now taking and it is largely owing to American Catholic gen- place will undoubtedly be followed by far-reaching erosity, expressed in the establishment of Catholic alterations in this school system. Socialism, which Relief for Austria and the Vienna Catholic Bureau, in the elections of 1919 conquered 48 per cent of that this desolating need will be met. the voters, sought to exploit its power in the do-

GovEBNMENT. — According to the new constitution main of education. Although in tne government of adopted in 1920, Austria is transformed into a con- the State the Catholics then constituted the mi- federation consisting of the following eight States nority, their vigilance warded off the worst blows {Lander): Lower Austria (subdivided into the and every advance of the adversaiy met clever province of the same name and Vienna), Upper counter measures.

Austria, St3rria, Carinthia (reunited to the confed- Conditions in the universities are very serious eration by the result of the recent plebiscite), Salz- at present (1921). Many professorial chairs are burg, Tyrol, Vorarlbcrg, and Burgenland (this being vacant, their holders having abandoned them be- the Austrian name of the Western Hungarian coun- cause they were unable to live on their salaries, tics awarded to Austria by the peace treaties). Austrian professors and men of science are emi- Each state has its own legislature. The Federal grating to Germany. Four universities are main- L^islature consists of two chambers, the National tained by the State, those of Vienna with 310 Council, elected by direct proportional suffrage, and teachers and 5,510 students, Graz, with 232 teachers the Federal Coimcil, elected by the Landtags of and 1,142 students, Innsbruck, with 164 teachers each State. The Federal Council has a limited and 982 students, and Salzburg. Besides there are