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At78TBIA 73 AUSTRIA

of German and Austrian dignitaries was held at keep a reserve force at Trieste and in the Trentino Potsdam. Provided with secret aasurances of Ger* against the possible intervention of Italy, as well as many's imqualified support, Austria-Hungary pre- to defend Galicia. Russia was slow on the field, sented to Servia, on 23 July» 1914, an ultimatum, and Austria-Hungary decided that the best method calling upon her to suppress anti-Austrian publica- of defending Galicia was an attack on Russian tions and societies, to discharge such government Poland before the Russians were fully mobilized, employees as the Austro-Hungarian Government Accordingly, two Austro-Hungarian armies, num- would accuse of anti-Austrian propaganda, to ex- bering 300,000 men each, were collected in Galicia elude anti-Austrian teachers and text-books from early in August, 1914; and on 1-2 September the the Servian schools, and to accept the collabora- critical battle of Lemberg was fought. Owing to tion in Servia of representatives of the Austro- defective Austrian generalship the Russians entered Hungarian Government for the suppression of the the city in triumph, giving it the Slavic name of subversive movement, and to signify unconditional Lvov. A new army under the Archduke Joseph acceptance of these and the other Austro-Hungarian Ferdinand was then put in the field from tne demands within forty-eight hours. Vistula to Lubin. On 6^-10 September the combined

Russia, France, and Great Britain endeavored to Austrian armies were completely routed. At this obtain from Austria an extension of the time limit critical moment Field Marshal von Hindenburg of the ultimatum in order that the whole question was put in command of all the German and Austro- might be submitted to general international co- Hungarian forces in the East. His first offensive, operation, but Austria-Hungary was committed and however, failed, and the Austrian army was forced sharply declined the request. On 25 July Servia back to Cracow, 19 October. In January, 1915, an rephed to the ultimatum, promising^ to comply with Austrian counter-offensive was launched, its failure such demands as did not seem to impair her inde- culminating in the surrender of Premysl to the pendence and sovereignty, and offering to refer all Russians, 22 March. The Servian campaign was disputed points of The Hague tribunal or to a also unsuccessful. In May, Italy denoun<^ her conference of the Great Powers. The Austrian treaty of alliance (1882, 1912) with Austria, and the Government pronounced the reply evasive and xm- Italian offensive against Austria commenced. The satisfactory, broke off all diplomatic relations with Austro-German forces under Field Marshal von Servia, and started the mobilization of her army. Mackensen recovered nearly all of Galicia 1915. To the Russian view it was obvious that Austria- successfully invaded Servia, and set about the con- Hungary was plaiming to deprive Servia of inde- quest of Montenegro and Albania. In 1916 the penoence and to annihilate Russian influence in Austrian offensive against Italy was definitely southeastern Europe. On the other hand the Ger- checked. Owing to the pressure of the Allied man Government insisted that the quarrel was blockade, the food situation became alarming and one which concerned Austria-Hungary and Servia it was doubtful if the country, weakened by famine, alone and opposed the repeated efforts of Russian, would be able to withstand concerted pressure British^ French, and even Italian diplomats to against its frontiers. On 27 August, 1916, Rumania refer the quarrel to an international Congress or declared war against Austria-Hungary, but in three Hague tribimal. Unequivocally Germany declared months was completely subjugateof by the Germans, that if Russia should come to the assistance of The Russian monarchy then collapsed (1917) and Servia, she would support Austria-Hungary with the Russian troops were completelv routed, freeing all the armed forces at her command. On 28 July, the Austro-German troops for another Italian drive. 1914, exactly a month after the archduke's as- After varying successes, on 24-25 October, 1918, SBsannation, Austria-Hungary formally declared war Italian armies smote the Austrians in the Monte against Servia. Grappe region; a British unit attacked along the

Russia immediately began to mobilize her armv lower Piave, and a French unit took Monte Seise- and when she refiised to comply with Germany s mol. The Austrian army fled, and Austria-Hungary, demand to demobilize, war was declared between made overtures for peace, offering unconditional sur- the two coxmtries. Germany then declared war on render. The irretrievable disaster of the Austro- France, who was in sympathy with Russia. Thus Hungarian armies led swiftly to the dissolution of within a week of the declaration of hostilities by the Dual Monarchy. The government at Vienna Austria-Hungary against Servia, four Great Powers resigned and the empire fist disintegrated into were in a state of war — Germany and Austria-Hun- independent states. Czechoslovakia and Jugoslavia garv against Russia and France. Belgium was in- emerged at once. The German-Austrian Republic vaded, at which violation of neutrality Great was proclaimed on 12 November. 1918. The treaty Britain protested and was soon involved in the of peace between Austria and the allied and asso- struggle. On 6 August Austria-Himgary declared ciated powers was signed at St. Germain-en-Laye war on Russia. On the foUowins day Montenegro on 10 September, 1919.

joined Servia against Austria-Hungary. On 13 The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire August a state of war existed between Austna^ left the small German nucleus around which that Hungary on one hand, and France and Great great congeries of states had been built up during Britain on the other. many centuries in a pitiful condition. The breaking

The Great War originated as a struggle on the away of the Polish, Czechoslovak, Jugoslav, Hun- part of Austria-Hungary and Germany against the garian, and other fragments of the Hungarian do- ^Slavic Peril," against the great Slav empire of minions, left only the core of Austria still attached Russia and the small Slav kingdoms of Servia and to the imperial capital and that core was essentially Montenegro, but from the be^nning of hostilities, German and was composed of the two historic Teutonic defense against Russia was of minor inter- provinces of Upper and Lower Austria. Over such est to Germamr as coinpared with the> attack on a state the leading Social Democrats of Vienna Belgium and France. Thus Austria-Hungary had established their authority with Dr. iCarl Renner to bear the brunt of the struggle with Russia. As a as provisional prime minister. By forbidding the military power she was far 1^ efficient than Ger- union of Bohemia with the German Austrian re- many. She was a hodge-podge of quarrelsome public, the allies forced that county to join the nationalities, and now she had to wage war on the newly formed Czechoslovak state, 'the small Ger- Bomian front against Servia and Montenegro, to mannspeaking district of Hungary which had been