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treatment of the ancient materials of canonical jurisprudence. In 1541 he took his degree of Doctor of Ci\-il and Canon Law and in 1544, at the request of the Emperor Charles V, he was made Auditor of the Rota by Paul III. In 1555 he was sent by Paul IV to England, with a message of con- gratulation for Queen Marj' and as Coimsellor to Cardinal Pole. In 1556 he was made Bishop of Alife, in the Kingdom of Naples, and in 1561 was transferred to Lerida in iiis native Spain. He as- sisted during three years at the Council of Trent and urged ardently the reformation of the clergj'. " It is our fault", "he said in the council, "that so great an agitation has arisen in France and Germany. We must begin with the reformation of the clergj'. It is your business, O Fathers, to save by your decrees the common weal of the Church that is now threat- ened." In 1576 he was promoted by Gregorj- XIII to the archiepiscopal See of Tarragona.

Augustinus is one of the foremost figures of the CathoUc Covmter-Reformation that .set in with so much vigour and success in the latter half of the sixteenth century. His chosen field was the f antes, or original sources of ecclesiastical law both papal and eoncihar. The basis of the medieval canon law was the "Decretura" of Gratian, a useful codification of the middle of the twelfth century, the ecclesiastical law-book of the schools and the universities, of great academic authority, but never formally approved by the popes as church legislation. Its materials, never hitherto critically illustrated as to their prominence and form, and often badly corrupted as to their text, stood in need of judicious sifting and elucidation. It was to this task that the young Augustinus ad- dressed liimself from 1538 to 1543. In the latter year he pubhshed at Venice the first critical study on Gratian. " Emendationum et Opinionum hbri IV", the result of four years' labour at the text of the old medieval Benedictine of Bologna. This text re- mained his life-long study; towards the close of his career, after important serWces rendered during ten years to the " Correctores Romani" in their edition of Gratian (Rome, 1582), he finished his own magis- terial examination of the work; it was not, however, pubhshed until after liis death, " De Eraendatione Gratiani dialogi (30) hbri 11" (Tarragona. 1587).

Other important publications of the sources of ci^^l and ecclesiastical law occupied liis pen. Thus he pubhshed in 1567 an edition of the Byzantuie im- perial constitutions, in 1576 liis "IV Antiqute Col- lectiones Decretahum", in 1582 a treatise on the "Penitential Canons" together with a" Poenitentiale Romanum" discovered by liim. From 1557 he sought earnestly for the necessary patronage, papal or regal, to enable liim to pubhsh the hitherto im- edited Greek text of the ancient ecclesiastical coun- cils, and for that purpose examined many arcliives in Italy and Germany; the fruits of liis labours were reaped at a later date by others. Among the more valuable of his posthumous pubhcations, and appeal- ing strongly to modern historical tastes, is a critical examination of several early medieval collections of canon law that served as original material for the "Decretum" of Gratian. This work, that Maa.ssen and von Scherer speak of with respect, is entitled " De quibusdam veteribus Canonum Ecclesiasticorum Collectionibus Judicium et censura ", and was pub- lished at Rome (1611) with the second and third parts of his "Juris Pontificii Vetcris Epitome" (to Inno- cent III, 1198-1216), the first part of which appeared at Tarragona in 1587. It contains biograpliical and text-critical notes on a number of collectors of ecclesiastical laws, from the sixth to the twelfth century. In this work he treats progressively of the pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, and wliile he did not dispose of sufficient material to demonstrate thor- ouglily their spurious character or to attempt to fix

the time and place of their compilation, it is clear that he did not believe them earlier than the time of Pope Daniasus (366-384) or even of the seventh century "CoUectio Hispana". His notes on the correlated "Capitula Hadriani " (Angilranini) were published at Cologne in 1618. His powerful genius was truly universal. Classical philology, epigraphy, numismatics, above all the liistory of civil and ecclesiastical law found in liim an investigator whose boldness and insight were extraordinary for that period of incipient historico-critical research. Death surprised him at the patriotic task of an edi- tion of the works of the Spanish writer, St. Isidore of Seville. The works of Augustinus were printed in eight volumes at Lucca (1775-74); his life by Siscarius is in the second volume 1-121.

Maassen. Gfsch. d. Quellen und Litt. des. can. Rechls im Abendlande. etc. (Gratz. 1S70). I. xix-xxxiv; Von Scherer in Kirchenlex.; Schott. Laud. Fttnebr. cl. liri. Ant. Aitgustini. in Gallandi. De vet. Canonum collect, dissertalionum sylloge (Mainz. 1790); P.\N'siROLUs, De cl. leg. interpreta. (Leipzig. 17211; NicERON, ilcmoires, IX, 58-76; Andre.suis, Ant. Aug. Epistola: lat. et ital. (Parma, 1804).

Thom.\s J. Sh.\h.\n. Augustinus Maria, O. D. C. See Cohen, Her- man x.

Augustinus Novellus, O. S. A. See Agostino


Augustinus Triumphus. See Hermits of St.


Augustinus-Verein, The, an association organ- ized in 1878 to promote the interests of the Catholic press, particularly the daily press, of Germany. The society proposes to attain its end (1) by giving its moral" support to the establisliment of Catholic papers; (2) by furnishing trustworthy information and authentic news to the daily papers; (3) by training Catholic journalists, and giving assistance to the members of the profession in need of it; (4) by representing the interests of the profession; (5) by securing positions and giving information antl assistance in all matters connected with journalism, free of charge; and finally (6) by endeavouring to bring about the harmonious co-operation of Catholic pub- lishers, as well as uniformity in treating the ques- tions of the day. The lack of organization on the part of the Catfiolic Press first became obvious at an early stage of the KuUurkampf; several unsuccessful attempts were made to supply the deficiency, among others the formation of a society of publishers. The first feasible steps were taken at the Catholic Conven- tion at Wiirzburg; at subsequent gatherings plans were matured, and at Dusseldorf, 15 May, 1»78, a progranmie was dra\™ up which is substantially followed out in the present Augustinus-Verein. Diisseldorf became the centre of the Verein, which, now that it has spread throughout Germany, is divided into ten groups, corresponding to geographi- cal divisions, each, to a large extent autonomous. A general assembly is held annually. The Verein has its own organ, "the " Augustinusblatt", published at Krefeld. It also conducts a literary bureau, a beneficial society, a parliamentary correspondence association of tl'ie Centre Party, in Berlin, and an emploj-ment agency. In 1904 the society had a regular membership of 850, in addition to the asso- ciate membership.

KocK in BucHBERGER, Kirchlich. Handlex.; Meier in Kir- chenlex.

F. M. RtlDGE.

Augustopolis, a titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Petra. Its episcopal list (431-536) is given in Gams (p. 454). There were two other sees of the same name, one in Cilicia. a suffragan of Tarsus, the other in Phrygia (Asia Minor), suffragan of Synuada. Its episcopal list (Gams, p. 446) extends from 359 to 869.

Leqdien, Oriens Christ. (17401. II. 727-728; I, 843-886.

Augustow, Diocese of. See Senjy.