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Male Orders Female Orders


Spalato and Macarska .



Cracow (Arehd.)


Lemberg (Arm. Rite) .



9(14) 2 1

604 i 58 (73) 33 I 30 I 1







Totals 542 | 9,970 i 1,667 l 24,018

Denominational Statistics.—The forty-nine million inhabitants of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy are divided, as to their religious beliefs, as follows: —

Austrian Provinces.

(Latin Rite 20,661,000)

Catholics ] Greek Rite 3,134,000 [ 23,797,000

(Armenian Rite. . 2,000)

Jews 1.225,000

Greeks (Eastern) 607,000

Evangelicals 491,000

Old-Catholics 13,000

Of no confession 6,000

Mohammedans 1 ,000

Of other confessions 8,000

Hungarian Provinces.

( Latin Rite 10,299,190 )

Catholics 907;936 \ 12,207,126

Evangelicals 3,823,061

Greeks (Orthodox) 2,882,695

Jews 886,466

Unitarians 70,260

Of other confessions 15,837

Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Greeks (Eastern) 673,000

Mohammedans 549,000

Catholics 339,000

Jews 8,000

Of other confessions 4,000

Kenxer, Noncum und Pannonien (Vienna, 1870); S.\cppe (ed.), Eugippii Vita S. Severini (Berlin, 1877); s, c. Kirchen- und Teichsrechtliche VerhaltnUae des Salzburg Suffraganbistums Gurk (Ivrems. 1872); Friess. Studien uber das Wirken der Benedictiner in CEsterreich, in Seiienlettener Gymnasialpro- gramme, 1868-77; Jaxauschek. Originum Ciilerciensium (Vienna. 1877), I; Frikd, Die Kirchengeschichte Bohmens (3 vols., Prague, 1864-66); E-ndlicher, Rer. Hungar. Monu- menla Arpadiana (Sang. 1848); il.ilL.vTH, Geschichte der Mag- yaren (2d ed., Ratisbon, 1852); Wahrmcxd, Das Kir- chenpatronat und seine Entwiekelung in CEsterreich (Vienna, 1894); SocHER, Historia Provincia: Austria S. J. (Vienna, 17401; Graf vos Khevexhiller, .Annates Ferdinandei (Ratisbon, 1640-46); Gixdelv. Kaiser Rudolph 11 und seine Zeit (2 vols., Prague. 1863); ScHrsTER, Fursl-Bischof Brenner (Graz. 1898); Hammer-PurgsT-\ll, Geschichte des Kardinals Khlesl (4 vols.. 1847-51); ScHLnrER. Die Reise des Papstes Pius VI nach Wien in Pontes Rer. Austriac. (Vienna, 1892-94). XLVII; Brcxxer. Mysterien der .iufklaruno in CEsterreich (Mainz. 1869); Die theol. Dienerschaft am Hofe Josephs 11 (Vienna. 1868); Wolfsgrcber, Kardinal Migazzi (Saulgau. 18911; Ma.issex. iVeun Kapilel Uber frei Kirche und Gewissensfreiheil (Graz. 1876), ch. viii, pp. 370-447, Das asterr. Konkordat; Zschokke, Die theologischen Studien und Anstalten der kalholischen Kirche in CEsterreich (Vienna and Leipzig, 1894); Wappler. Geschichte der theol. Fakultat an der K. K. Universitat Wien (Vienna. 1884); WoLFSGRrBER. Die Konfcrenzen der Bischofe CEsterreichs (Linz, 1905): Hibner- TwAscHEK, Geographisch-Statistische Tabellen (Frankfort on the .Main, 1906); Xo'S WvRZH.Kcn, Der grosse CEsterreich Haus- schntz. ein nal Bibliothek biog. Lerikon (Vienna, 1750-1850. 1857-91); Leger, Hist, of .iustro- Hungary, tr. Hll-L (London. 1RS9); Statesman's Year-Book (London, 1907); Vox Losche. Geschichte iles Protestantismus in CEsterreich in Vmrissen (1902).

C. Wolfsgruber.

Authentic. —The term is used in two sen.?es. It is applied first to a book or document whose contents are invested with a special authority, in \-irtue of wliich the work is called authentic. In its second sense it is used as a sj-nonym for "genuine", and therefore means that a work really emanates from the author to whom it is ascribed. The article VuLG.^TE explains the first sense of the word; the articles on the single books of Sacred Scripture illustrate the second. F. X. E. Albert.

Authenticity of the Bible. — The authenticity or authority of Holy Writ is twofold on account of its twofold' authorship. First, the various books which make up the Bible are authentic because they enjoy all the human authority that is naturally due to their respective authors. Second, they possess a higher authenticity, because invested with a Di\-ine, supernatural authority tlirough the Divine authorship which makes them the inspired word of God. BibUcal authenticity in its first sense must naturally be considered in the articles on the several books of Sacred Scripture; in its second sense, it springs from Biblical inspiration, for which see Inspirition

VigovRorx, Manuel bibligue (Paris. 1901), I, 223-225; M-^ZZELLA, De Virtutibus Infusis (Rome. 1879). 554. 555.

F. X. E. Albert.

Authority, Civil, the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members. We shall consider here the nature, sources, limits, di- visions, origin, and the true and false theories of authority. Authority is as great a necessity to mankind as sobriety, and as natural. By "natural" here is meant, not what accrues to man without any effort of his owti (teeth, for example), but what man must secure, even with an effort, because without it he cannot well be man. It is natural to man to live in civil society; and where there is civil society, there must be authority. Anarchy is the disruption of society. Speaking generally, we may say no man loves isolation, solitude,, the life of a hermit; on the other hand, whUe many dislike the authority under which they live, no man wishes for anarchy. A\Tiat malcontents aim at is a change of government, to get authority into their own hands and govern those who now govern them. Even the professed anarchist regards anarchy as a temporary expedient, a preparation for liis own advent to power. Authority, then, in the abstract, everj- man loves and cherishes; and righth' so, for it is his nature to live in society, and society is kept together by authority. Tlie model of hermits was St. Simecm Stylites, so called from his living on the top of a style, or pillar. That was his special vocation; he was no ordinary man. But the political philosopher considers man as man ordinarily and normally is. Two things would strike a stranger from Mars looking down upon this planet: how men on earth love herding together, and how they love moving about, Ordinarj- man can no more afford to be solitarj- than he can afford to be stationary, though Simeon Stylites was both. Solitarj' confinement is the severest of punishments, next to death. It is hard to say whether the solitude or the confinement, proves the more irksome. This simple point, that man cannot live alone, must be insisted upon, for all errors in the theorj- of au- thority are rooted in the assumption that man's living in society, and thereby coming to he governed by social authority, is something purely optional and conventional, a fashion which man could verj- well discard if he would, as he might discard the wearing of green clothes. Men who would make society a conventional arrangement, and authority a fashion of the hour, have appealed to the noble savage as the standard of humanity proper, forgetting that the savage is no solitarj', but a member of a horde, to separate from which woidd be death, and to ignore the control of which would be death also. Man must live in societj', and, in point of historical fact, men have alwaj-s lived in societj'; everj' human develojv ment is a social progress. It is natural to man to live in societj', to submit to authoritj', and to be