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Sanders, Report to Cardinal Moroni, 1561 (Cath. Record Soc. Pubs., 1905), I: Prrrs, Be Angl. Script. (1623); Dodd, Church History (1688), Ft. Ill, ii, art. 3; Cooper. Athena Canlabrigienses, I, 202; Gillow, Bihl. Diet. Eng. Calh. (London, 18S5); Bridgett .vnd Kxox. Q. Eliz. and the Cath. Hierarchy (London, 1889); Phillips, Extinction of the .indent Hierarchy (I-,ondon, 1905).

Edwin Buhton. Baini, Abbate Giuseppe, b. in Rome, 21 Octo- ber, 1775; d. there 21 May, 1844. Baini made his first musical studies under the direction of his uncle Lorenzo Baini, a distinguished disciple of the Roman School, who introduced him into the spirit and traditions of the Palestrina style. Later Baini be- came the pupil and friend of Jannaconi, choirmaster of the Vatican BasiUca, through whom he was ad- mitted into the choir of the Sistine Chapel as a bass singer. In 1818 Baini was tmanimously elected di- rector of the famous choir, a position which he held till his death.

Wliile Baini has left a considerable number of compositions (notably a ten-voiced " Miserere " which is still performed, alternately with those of Allegri and Bai, during Holy Week" by the Sistine Chapel choir), all of which are written in the style of the great period of classic polj'phony, liis great hfe- work was his "Memorie storico-critiche della vita e delle opere di Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina" (1828). Through the translation into German of this work by Francis de Sales Kandler (Vienna, 1834), the hfe and labours of Palestrina 's school and period became more accessible and were a powerful in- fluence in the revival and restoration of liturgical music which was about to take its beginning. The publication of Pale.strina's complete works was one of the results of Baini's biography of the master. Baini lived so completely in the great musical past that he had but scant sjTupathy with, or understanding for, modern developments of the art. Besides the biography of Palestrina he has left a study on the theorj- of rhjiibm of the ancients under the title: "Saggio sopra I'identita di ritmi musical! e poetici "; an unfinished history of the Sistine Chapel choir; and other essays of a critical or theoretic character. Ambros, Geschichte der Musik (Leipzig, 1881); Riemaxn, Musik Lex. (Leipzig, 1903).

Joseph Otten.

Baithen, Saint, of lona, an Irish monk, specially selected by St. Columba as one of the band of mis- sionaries who set sail for Britain in 563. Bom in 536, the son of Brenaron, he was an ardent disciple of St. Columba, and was appointed Abbot of Tiree Island, a monasterj' founded by St. ComgaU of Bangor. St. Adamnan, in recording the death of St. Columba, tells us that the dpng ivords of the Apostle of lona, as he was transcribing the fifty- third Psalm, were: "I must stop here, let Baithen WTite what follows". Baithen had been looked on as the most likely successor to St. Columba, and so it happened that on the death of that great apos- tle, in 596, the monks unanimously confirmed the choice of their founder. St. Baithen was in high esteem as a wise counsellor, and his advice was sought by many Irish saints, including St. Fintan Munnu of Taghmon.

St. Adamnan (Eunan), the biographer of St. Columba, tells many interesting incidents in the life of St. Baithen, but the mere fact of being the immediate successor of St. Columba, by the e.xpress wish of that apostle, is almost sufficient to attest his worth. The " Mart jTologj- of Donegal" records the two following anecdotes. When St. Baithen par- took of food, before each morsel he invariably re- cited "Deus in adjutorium meum intende". Also, "when lie worked in the fields, gathering in the corn along with the monks, he used to hold up one hand towards Heaven, beseeching God, while with the other hand he gathered the corn". St. Baithen of lona is generally known as Baithen Mor, II.— M

to distinguish him from eight other saints of the same name — the affix mor meaning "the Great". He WTote a life of his master, and some Irish poems, which are now lost, but wluch were seen by St. Adamnan. He only ruled lona three years, as his death took place in the year 600, though the "An- nals of Ulster" gi\-e the date as 598. Perhaps the true year may be 599. His feast is celebrated on October 6th. Some WTiters assert that St. Baithen of lona is the patron of Ennisboyne, County Wick- low, but this is owing to a confusion with St. Baoi- thin, or Baithin mac Findech, whose feast is com- memorated on 22 May. Another St. Baoiihin, son of Guana, whose feast is on 19 February, is patron of Tibohin, in Elphin.

CoLGAN, .Acta Sanctorum; Sherman, Loca Patriciana: O'Hanlon, Lives of the Irish Saints; Reeves. Adamnan (Dublin, 1857); Fowler, Vita S. Columba: (Oxford, 1894); Annals of Ulster (Rolls Series); Healv, Insula Sanctorum el Doctorum. 4th ed. (Dublin, 1902); Mohan, Irish Saints in Great Britain (1903); .Acta Sanctorum Hibemia ex Codice Salamanticensi (Edinburgh and London. 1888); Stoke.s, Irish Lives of the Saints (Oxford, 1890); Htde, Literary His- tory of Ireland (London, 1900).

W. H. GR.^TT.tN Flood. Baius (or de B.a.y), Michel, theologian and author of a system known as Baianism, was b. at Melun in Hainaut, 1513, and d. at Louvain 16 September, 1589. Though poor, he succeeded in procuring, in the various colleges of the Louvain University, a complete course of studies, including humanities, philosophy, and theology. His first appointment, inm:iediately after his ordination, was as principal of the Standonk College, 1541. Three years later he was given the chair of philosophy which he re- tained till 1550. In that year he took the degree of Doctor of Theologj% was made President of the College Adrien and also substitute to the professor of Holy Scripture, then absent at the Council of Trent, the full professorship following two years later at the titular's death. Baius had very early formed a close friendship with John Hessels. While the tliree leaders of the university: Tapper, Chan- cellor; Ravestein, Professor of Theologj-; and Has- selius, Professor of Holy Scripture, were at the Council of Trent, Baius and Hessels profited by their absence to give vent to long cherished ideas and introduce new methods and new doctrines. On his return from Trent, in 1552, Chancellor Tapper found that e\il influences had been at work and asked Cardinal de Granvelle, Archbishop of Mechlin, to interfere. Granvelle succeeded in quieting the in- novators for awhile, but Tapper's death, in 1559. became the signal of fresh disturbances. At the re- quest of the Franciscans, the Sorbonne of Paris had censured eighteen propositions embodying the main innovations of Baius and Hessels. Baius answered the censure in a memoir now lost, and the contro- versy only increased in acridity. Pope Pius IV, through Cardinal Granvelle, imposed silence upon both Baius and the Franciscans, without, however, rendering any doctrinal decision. When the sessions of the Council of Trent were resumed, in 1561, Baius and Hessels were selected to represent the imiversity at Trent. The papal legate, Commendone, objected to the choice of the university, but Cardinal de Gran- velle thought that the two innovators' presence at Trent would be good both for them and for the uni- versity. In 1563 he sent them to Trent, not, however, as delegates of the university, but as theologians of the King of Spain. Just before leaving for Trent Baius had published his first tracts. L'nfortunately, the contents of those tracts were not within the pro- gramme of the last three sessions of the Council of Trent, and no public discu-ssion of the disputed points took place. It is known, however, that Baius' and Hessels views were distasteful to the Fathers, and that the Catholic king's prestige alone saved them from formal condemnation.