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BALDWIN

BALEARIC the Bavarian, and contributed largely to his final success. In the conflict between Louis and Pope John XXII, which was equally disastrous to Church and Empire, Baldwin also sided with Louis, and for this reason did not receive the papal approba- tion when the Cathedral Chapter of Mainz postu- lated him as successor to Aichspalter (who d. 5 June, 1320). Upon the death, in 1328, of Matthias, whom the pope had appointed Archbishop of Mainz, to succeed Aichspalter, Baldwin was again postu- lated as archbishop by the Cathedral Chapter of Mainz, took possession of the archdiocese, and administered it nearly nine years (1328-37), despite the protests of the pope, who had appointed Henry Virneburg to the position. On the 16th of July, 1338, he took an important part in the meet- ing of the imperial electors at Reuse, near Coblenz, where they protested against all papal interference in the election of the emperors and decided that the emperor elected by them could exercise his imperial authority without the approbation of the pope. When Clement VI renewed the ex- communication of Louis the Bavarian, and there was hope that Charles IV, a grandnephew of Bald- win, would receive the imperial crowii, Baldwin finally abandoned the Bavarian and at a meeting at Reuse (11 July, 1346) prevailed upon the other electors to declare Louis deposed and elect Charles IV emperor. Baldwin crowned the new emperor at Aachen, 26 July, 1349. Within his own diocese Baldwin successfully fought against the many robber-barons who at that time infested Europe. He destroyed their strongholds and forced the barons to submit to the laws or leave his domain. He promoted com- merce by erecting the bridge which still spans the River Moselle at Coblenz. Numerous churches in various parts of the diocese were built by him, and many wholesome decrees were passed at the synods which he convoked. But Baldwin, the bishop, dwindles beside Baldwin, the soldier and statesman. During the forty-six years of his reign (1308-54) the destinies of the German Empire were largely guided by the powerful hands of this prelate-prince. He was a shrewd diplomat and a brave soldier, but above all he was a member of the house of Luxemburg, and its aggrandizement was the mainspring of his political activities. The Avignonese popes, John XXII and Clement VI, may have set up unjust claims in regard to the imperial office, but there is no justification for Baldwin's siding vith Louis the Bavarian even after that emperor was deservedly excommunicated. There may have been palliating circumstances as to his administration of the Archdiocese of Mainz in opposition to the pope's command, but, as a subject of the pope, he should have submitted. He was the author of the so-called " Balduineum", a collection of documents relating to the possessions and privileges of Trier, together with a .series of pic- tures bearing on Henry's expedition to Rome, which was republished at Berlin in 1881. His remains lie in the Cathedral of Trier. Dambkrger, Synchronistische Geschichte der Kirche und der Welt im MiUelailer (Regensburg, 1860). XII-XIV, passim, XV, 213; DoMiNlcos. Baldwin ran Liitzelburg (Koblenz. 1862); MCller. Der Kampf Ludwiys des Bayem mit der romischen Kurie (Tubingen, 1879, 1880); De Lorenzi in Kirrhenlei., s. v.; Brower-Masen, Anliq. el Anna!. Trev. (Liuge, 1670). 11; PRIE.SACK, ReichspoHtik des Erzhischofs Baldwin von Trier, lSti-lS28 (Gottingen, 1894); Vogt. ReichspoHtik des Erz- hischofs Baldwin in den Jahren lS2S-lSSi (Gotha, 1901). Michael Ott. Baldwin (also Baudoix), Francis, a celebrated jurist, b. 1 January, 1.520 at Arras, tlien part of the German Empire; d. 24 October, 1573, at Paris. He was sent in his early youth to Louvain, where he studied jurisprudence with great success. At the end of his studies he came to the court of the Emperor Charles V (1519-56) at Brussels. He subsequently travelled extensively, appearing at Paris and Geneva several times and teaching successively at Bourges (1549-56), Strasburg, Heidelberg, Douai, Paris, and Angers. The assertion of his sevenfold change of religion from Catholicism to Calvinism and from Calvinism to Catholicism cannot be substantiated. But it is certain that, in the earher part of his life, he exhibited toward the Calvinistic system a friend- liness incompatible with sound Catholic convictions. This attitude for some time recommended him to princes for the settlement of religious questions in- teresting both Catholics and Protestants. His at- tachment to the Faith gradually grew stronger, how- ever, and beginning with the year 1560, he made a serious study of ecclesiastical questions, successfully defending the Catholic religion against Calvin. He died a devout Catholic in the arms of the celebrated Spanish Jesuit, Maldonatus. Baldwin was a very prolific writer on juridical and ecclesiastical topics. Among his works are: "Con- stantinus Magnus" (Basle, 1556; Strasburg, 1612); "Minucii Felicis Octavius" (Heidelberg, 1560). He is the first to ascribe the "Octavius" to Minucius Felix; " S. Optati Libri Sex de Schismate Danatis- tarum" (Paris, 1563); "Discours sur le fait de la R6forme" (Paris, 1564). NicERON, Hommea Illustr. (Paris, 1734), XXVIII, 255-277; Rass, Convertiten (Freiburg. 1866), II, 176-187; Schaumkeli.. Der Rechtsgelchrle F. Balduinus (1894). N. A. Weber. Baldwin of Canterbury, thirty-ninth Archbishop, a native of Exeter, date of birth unknown; d. 19 Nov., 1190. He was ordained priest and made archdeacon by Bartholomew, Bishop of Exeter. He subse- quently became a Cistercian monk at the Abbey of Ford, in Devonshire, and within a year was made Abbot of Ford. In 1180 he was promoted to the Bishopric of Worcester and in the same year was elected to the primatial see by the bishops of the province. The election was disputed by the monks of Canterbury, who chose first the Abbot of Battle, then Theobald, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia. King Heniy II interfered. Baldwin, who, according to Gervase, refused to accept the archbishopric unless he was elected by the monks, was installed, and an arrangement was entered into by which, in the future, the bishops' elections were to be disallowed. He was several times engaged in disputes with the Canterbury monks, necessitating the further inter- ference of King Richard and of the Holy See. The prior, Norreys, whom he had nominated, was de- posed; but his right to appoint the priors was ac- knowledged. Baldwin acted as legate in Wales, where he held a visitation in 1187, and in 1188 preached the Crusade, after having himself taken the cross on hearing the news of the loss of Jerusalem. In 1190 he set out for the Holy Land, in company with Hubert, Bishop of Salisbury, and others, providing at his own costs two hundred knights and three hundred retainers. While there he acted as vicegerent of the patriarch. Giraldus Cainbrensis describes him as gentle, kindly disposed, learned, and religious. He died during the siege of Acre, leaving all he possessed for the relief of the Holy Land and naming Bishop Hubert as his executor. His works (to be found in the " Bib- liotheca Patrum Cisterciensium ", V) are "De Com- mendatione Fidei "; " De Sacramento Altaris". There are also some discourses and a penitential in MS. preserved in the Lambeth Library. G OF Canterbury. Chronicle, I; Giraldus Cam- BRENSls, De Sex Episcop. Vit.; Idem, Itin. Kambria: Epp. Cantuar.; Gesta Regis Henrici; Introduction to Memorials of Richard I (all in Rolls Series). Fr. cis Aveling. Balearic Isles, a group in the western part of the Mediterranean belonging to Spain and consist-