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After almost nine years of labour in which he en- joyed free access to all the libraries of Rome, Pietro brought out his monumental work in three volumes (Rome, 1753-57) reproducing the entire edition of Quesnel together with elaborate refutations and additions (Migne, P. L., LIV-LVI). The third vol- ume is a profound study of the sources of canon law. Quesnel had published a collection of canons from a codex which he believed to have been in use under Popes Innocent I, Zozimus, and Leo the Great. Besides disproving tliis, Pietro brought out in an improved form earlier Latin editions of the canons, together with some very old unknown versions of Greek canons. He also published two valuable works (against Febronius) on papal power, "De vi ac ratione Primatus Romanorum Pontificum" (Verona, 1766), and "De potestate ecclesiastica Suramorum Pontificum et Conciliorum generalium" (Verona, 1765).

Mazzuchelli, GK scHttori d'ltalia (Brescia, 1753-63), 11, part 1, 178; Fabroni, Vitcc Italorum doctrina excellentium (Pisa, 1778-1805), XVIII, 109.

Leo F. O'Neil.

Ballina, Diocese of. See Killala.

Balliol, John. See Oxford.

Ballon, Louise Bl.a.nche. See Sisters of Provi- dence AND Reformed Beknardines.

Balme (Balma), Henry (also called Hugh) a Franciscan theologian, bom at Geneva, date uncer- tain; d. 23 February, 1439. He entered the Order of Friars Minor in the province of Burgundy. He was a man of exceptional worth according to the testimony of St. Colette, whose confessor he was. Possessing an intimate knowledge of his penitent's hfe, he wrote a brief account of her marvellous gifts. The saint, however, on hearing of its existence, caused it to be destroyed. Among his other writ- ings is one on "Theologia Mystica" which was at- tributed to St. Bonaventure and is to be found in many editions of the latter's works, but the editors of the latest edition (Quaracchi, 1898, Vol. VIII, p. cxi), following Sbaralea, have restored it to its rightful owner.

Andrew Egan.

Balmes, Jaime Luciano, philosopher and publi- cist, b. at Vich, Spain, 28 August, 1810; d. there, 9 July, 1848. His parents enriched him with no material wealth, but he owed to them a firm, well- balanced temperament, a thorough education, and, probably to his father, a marvellous memory. If to these endow- ments we add a pen- etrating intellect, an instinctive sense of right method, an ab- sorbing passion for knowledge, an un- flinching though noble ambition, an indom- itable determination, a pure life — wherein no unruly sensuous- ness seems to have ever beclouded the spirit — and abundant opportunities for men- tal development, we may be prepared to accept even what looks so much like an extravagance on the part of his biographers, that with his sixteenth year, having passed through the schools of Vich, he had completed the seminary course, including philosophy and elementary theology. The next stage of his education was completed at the University of Cervera, where after seven years he received his licentiate in 1833. Later on, he

stood for the dignity of Magistral of Vich, con- testing for the position with his former teacher. Dr. Soler. Returning to Cervera after his ordination to the priesthood he held a position as an assistant professor and pursued the study of civil and canon law. He shortly afterwards received the doctorate in pompa. In 1834 he went back to his native place where he devoted himself with his wonted ardour to physics and mathematics, and accepting a position as professor in the latter branch, varied the onerous duties of this position by cultivating the classics and writing poems. The latter, though not of a very high order of merit, served to extend liis reputation to the capital. He WTote for the "Madrileiio Catolico" a prize essay on "Clerical Celibacy" which was so favourably received by the public that he was encouraged to send forth a small book, entitled " Observaciones sociales, poll ticas, y eco- nomicas sobre los bienes delclero" (1840), which won for him national distinction, the essay arousing special interest in the Cortes. Soon afterwards he ^vrote " Consideraciones sobre la situacion en Es- pana", directed mainly against Espartero, then at the zenith of his power. It was a bold deed and might easily have been fatal to Balmes.

This was followed by a translation, with Spanish introduction, of the maxims of St. Francis de Sales (1840). He was now far advanced in his "Protes- tantism Compared with Catholicism" but suspended the work for fifteen days to compose "La Religion demonstrado al alcance de los niflos" a work of advanced instruction for children which rapidly spread throughout Spain and Spanish America and was translated into English. Elected a member of the Academy of Barcelona (1841), he wrote his inaugural dissertation on "Originality", an essay which exemplifies the predominant trait of its author's mind. Having completed his reply to Guizot's "(Civ- ilization in Europe", he published it at Barcelona (1844) under the title El Protestantismo com- parado con el Catolicismo en sus relaciones con la civilizacion Europea". The work was at once trans- lated into French and subsequently into Italian, German, and English, and extended the fame of Balmes throughout the world. This work, which for its wealth of fact and critical insight would alone have taxed the resources of a longer life than that which was allotted to Balmes, left to its author time and energy adequate to accomplish tasks of hardly less magnitude and significance. During the bombardment of Barcelona by Espartero, Balmes, going away unwillingly with his friends, took refuge in a country house with no other books than his breviary, "The Imitation", and the Bible, and while the cannon roared in his ears the philosopher, repeating the experience of Archimedes at the siege of Syracuse, composed the "El Criterio" (The Criterion, New York, 1875; The Art of Thinking, Dublin, 18S2), a thoroughly practical guide on method in the pursuit of knowledge. It seems in- credible that the work could have been produced as it was within a month. Shortly after Balmes be- came associated with two friends, Roca y Cornet and Ferrer y Subirana, in editing "La Civilizaci6n", a widely influential review wherein appeared one of his most powerful, because sympathetic, papers — that on O'Connell. In 1843 Balmes withdrew from the editorship to found in Barcelona a review of his own, "La Sociedad". It contained a mass of important papers meeting the social, political, and religious exigencies of the time. "La Sociedad" was reprinted at Barcelona in 1851. It was through its pages that the greater part of a notable work, sub- sequently completed by the author, was issued — "Cartas d un eseptico (Letters to a Sceptic, Dub- hn, 1875).

About the date of the appearance of "El Protes-