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Epiphany Apostolic College, its preparatory seminarj-, ■was opened in 1889 by Rev. Dominic Manley. In 1881 St. Elizabeth's Home for coloured children was established in Baltimore by Jlother Winifred and three English Sisters of St. "Francis. Their convent on Marj-land Avenue was opened in 1889, the house being a gift to the order from Mrs. E. Austin Jenkins.

(f) Martin John Spalding. — At -Archbishop Ken- rick's death the United States Government attempted to interfere in the selection of an archbishop, but failed (Cathedral Records, Baltimore, 1906, p. 46; Shea, Hist, of Cath. Ch. in U. S., 1844-66, New York, 1889-92, p. 393), and the Rt. Rev. Martin John Spald- ing, Bishop of Louis^•ille, was elected 23 May, 1864. Archbishop Spalding in\nted the Sisters of the Good Shepherd from Louisville (1864) to come to Baltimore, and established them in a home given by Mrs. Emily Mactavish. Their work is the reformation of fallen women and the preservation of young girls. At this time (1864) the Church lost one of its foremost members, Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice of the United States. The Tenth Provincial Council was opened in the cathedral, 25 April, 1869; 14 prelates were present. The Second Plenarj' Council of Balti- more met 7 October, 1866, in the cathedral. It recom- mended the estabhshment of the Apostolic Vicariate of North Carolina. St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys, erected on land donated by Mrs. Emily Mac- tavish, was opened in 1866. and placed in charge of the Xaverian Brothers from Belgium. Mt. St. Jo- seph's College, begun (1876) as an aid to the Xaverian Novitiate, has now 40 novices and 150 students. St. James's Home (Baltimore) furthers the work of the Industrial School by securing positions for, and board- ing, older boys. It has about 70 boarders. A some- what unusual event took place 16 August, 1868, when Revs. James Gibbons and Tliomas Becker were con- secrated together in the cathedral by Archbishop Spalding. Woodstock College, the seminarj' of the Jesuit Fathers, was opened in 1869; Father Angelo Barasci was its first rector. Since then many standard treatises on theology, philosophy, and science have been published by its professors, the best kno^Ti being the works of Mazzella, De Augustinis, Sabetti, Maas, PiccireUi. and Sestini. In 1865 John T. Stephanini and Charles Long, Passionist Fathers, were appointed to St. Agnes 's Church, Catonsville. The Passionist monastery of St. Joseph was completed in 1868; Father Long was elected its first rector. It was de- stroyed by fire in 1883 and a new monastery was built in 1886. The Little Sisters of the Poor were estab- lished in Baltimore, 6 April, 1869. Since then 3,082 old people have been cared for by them. Rev. Thomas Foley, who had been at the cathedral for twenty-two years, was consecrated Administrator of Cliicago in 1870. Archbishop Spalding died 7 Februarj', 1872. During his administration the churches built in Balti- more were: St. Martin's (Fulton Avenue) corner-stone laid in 1865, Rev. John Foley, first pastor; St. Mary's Star of the Sea founded in 1869, by Rev. Peter McCoy. The Sisters of St. Joseph came to this parish in 1875. After Archbisliop Spalding's death. Very Rev. John Dougherty administered the diocese until the in- stallation of Archbishop Bayley (October, 1872).

(g) James Roosevelt Bayleji. — .Archbishop Bayley had been an Episcopalian minister in New York, be- came a Catholic, a priest, and at the time of his eleva- tion to Baltimore, was Bishop of Newark. Philadel- phia was made a metropolitan see in 1875. The Prov- ince of Baltimore was thus limited to the Sees of Baltimore, Charleston, Richmond, Wheeling, Sa- vannah, Wilmington, St. Augustine (created 1870), and the Vicariate of North Carolina. There were in the diocese in 1870, 160 churches and chapels; 230 priests; 18 charitable, and six educational, institu- tions. In one year the archbishop confirmed two hundred times. Of the 6,405 persons confirmed, 847

were converts. The Eighth Provincial Sj-nod opened in Baltimore, 27 August, 1875; 93 priests and repre- sentatives of 8 religious communities were present. St. Ann's (York Road) bmlt by Capt. William Ken- nedy and his -n-ife, was dedicated in 1874, Rev. Wil- liam E. Bartlett being its first pastor. The Capuchin Fathers established themselves in the diocese (1875) in the Monastery of St. Peter and Paul, Cumberland. In 1882, it was made tlie seminary of the order; 59 priests have been ordained there. Previous to this, the Redemptorist, Rev. John N. Neumann, had built the church of St. Peter and Paul on the site of Fort Cumberland (1848). In 1866, the Carmelites suc- ceeded the Redemptorists and remained until 1875, when the Capuchin Fathers took charge. When tlie Redemptorists left Cumberland, they established (1867) their house of studies at Ilchester (Hist, of the Redemptorists at Annapolis, Ilchester, 1904). St. Catherine's Normal Institute for training Catholic teachers was established in Baltimore (1875) by Sis- ters of the Holy Cross. They have schools also at- tached to the churches of St. Patrick and St. Pius. The latter church was begun by Archbishop Bayley, its erection being made possible by a generous dona- tion of Mr. Columbus O'Donnell. It was dedicated in 1879. with Rev. L. S. Malloy first pastor. The Right Rev. James Gibbons, Bishop of Richmond, was made coadjutor with right of succession 20 May. 1877. Archbishop Bayley died the following October.

(h) James Gibbons. — Aichbishop Gibbons is the only Archbishop of Baltimore born in that city. The Third Plenary Council met in the cathedral 9 Novem- ber, 1884 — being the largest council held outside of Rome since the Council of Trent. The zuchetta was conferred upon Cardinal Gibbons 7 June, 1886. and the foUo'ning March he was invested in Rome and took possession of his titular church, Santa Maria in Trastevere. The Ninth Provincial Sj-nod was con- vened in Baltimore September, 1886, 115 priests at- tending; 8 religious orders were represented. The Catholic L'niversity of America was instituted in 1887, and the Archbishop of Baltimore was named, ex officio, the Chancellor. (.See C-\tholic University OF America.) The centenary of the diocese was cele- brated November, 1889. There were present Cardi- nals Gibbons and Taschereau; Mgr. SatoUi, repre- sentative of the pope, 8 archbishops, 75 bishops. 18 monsignori, and 400 priests. Canada, Mexico, Eng- land, and Ireland were represented. On that occasion leading Catholic laymen took part in a Catholic Con- gress (Hughes, Proceedings of Catholic Congress, Detroit, 1890) and there was a procession of 30.000 men with ilr. James R. Wlieeler as marshal. In 1893, the cardinal's .Silver Jubilee was celebrated. Nearly every see in the L'nited States was represented; there were also present representatives of the Holy Father, and of the episcopate of England, Ireland, Canada, and Oceania. Bishop A. A. Ciu"tis was consecrated in the cathedral November. 1886, and Bishop P. J. Donahue in 1894. 29 April, 1906, the centenary of the laying of the corner-stone of the cathedral was cele- brated. There were present the cardinal, the apos- tolic delegate. Most Rev. Diomede Falconio, 9 arch- bishops, 56 bishops, 4 abbots, and about 800 priests.

Among the late additions to the diocese are the Mission Helpers and the Sisters of Di\-ine Pro%-idence. The Mission Helpers opened a house in Baltimore in 1890; it was canonically organized, 5 November, 1906. 'The Sisters of Divine Providence (of Ken- tucky) were established in the diocese in 1892, ha\-ing charge of the liousehold interests of the Catholic Uni- versity, St. Mary's Seminary, and the cardinal's residence. The churches built during Cardinal Gib- bons's administration, in addition to those already mentioned are: St. Andrew's, dedicated 6 October, 1878; St. Paul's founded in 1899 (the present impos- ing church was erected in 1903); St. Gregorjs by