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(iv 1), they were delivered into the hands of the Chanaanite King JabLn of Asor who grievously oppressed them for twenty years (iv, 3). Thereupon the prophetess Debbora of Mount Ephraim, between Rama and Bethel, instigates Barac, manifestly a leading captain of the time, to assemble 10,000 men of the tribes of Xephtah and Zabulon (iv, 6; cf. v, 14) and to take the field against Sisara, the general of Jabin's army. Barac assembles his warriors at C«des, moves to Mount Thabor, and by a rush down the mountain surprises the Chanaanites (iv, 10, 12, 14; cf. V, 15, 19, 21). The panic-stricken army of Sisara is attacked, routed, pursued, and finally cut to pieces (iv, 16). Sisara, ha^•ing taken to flight, seeks refuge in the tent of Jahel, the wife of Haber, the Cinite, where he meets with a treacherous end (iv, 21; cf. V, 26). This signal victory of Barac, which put an end to the power and oppression of Jabin, and which was followed by a period of forty years' rest, is commemorated in the triumphal ode of Debbora and Barac (v). For the various accounts of Barac's exploits which critics detect in Judges, iv, and v, see Judges, Book of.

F. X. E. Albert.

Baradaeus, J.\cob, a SjTian Monophysite bishop, bom at Telia, towards the end of the fifth or the beginning of the sixth century, died in 578. He was the son of Theophilus bar Manii. a priest of Telia, and hence his real name was Jacob bar Theophilus; the surname Bi'irde'ana, corrupted into Baradjeus. was derived from the coarse horse-cloth bdrdd'thdn which he tisually wore. After receiving a good education he became a monk in the monasterj' of Pesilta, and a disciple of Severus, the head of the Monophysites. In the first half of the sixth centurj', Monophysitism, weakened by internal dissensions and by the opposition of the Emperor Jtistinian, was on the verge of disappearing, especially when its leader Severus died, 538. Probably through the influence of the Empress Theodora, Baradaeus was made Bishop of Edessa in 543, and henceforth devoted all his energies to the defence of Monophys- itism. Through his untiring activity he breathed a new life into what seemed a mere expiring faction. At the cost of great hardships, he went aroimd ordaining priests and deacons and strengthening his coreligionists. There exists a profession of faith addressed to him by the abbots of the province of Arabia, with 137 signatm-es (see Lamy, in "Actes du XI' Congres des Orientalistes", § 4, Paris, 1897) showing that he was the undisputed leader in Mono- physite circles. It is because of his prominence that the Monophysites were, and still are. called after his name, Jacobites. Barada?us has left very little in writing: a liturgj', and a few letters.

The main source 'for the hfe of Baradteus is John of Ephe- 6US, Ecclesiastu^at History, the third part of which has been published by Cureton (Oxford. 1853). and Lives of the Orun- tnl Saints, L.^ND ed. in his Anecdota Syriaca, II. 249-257; Dr- VAL, Litth-ature S>/riaque (2d ed., Paris, 1900); Isxetn, Jacobus Baradaus (Leyde'n, 1882).


Baraga, Frederic, first Bishop of Marquette, Michigan, U. S. A., b. 29 June, 1797, at Malavas, in the parish of Dobernice in the Austrian Dukedom of Carniolia; d. at Marquette, Mich., 19 Januan,-, 1868. He was baptized on the verj- day of his birth, in the parish church of Dobernice, by the names of Irenicus Frederic, the first of which, however, he never used, retaining only the second. His parents, Johann Nepomuc Baraga and Maria Katharine Jo- sefa (ni'e de Jencic), had five children, of whom Frederic was the fourth. His father was not rich, but his mother inherited after her father's death the estate of Malavas, besides a vast fortune. They were God-fearing and pious, and strove, while they 6Ur\-ived, to gi\e a good education to their children. His mother died in 1808, and his father in 1812,

The Right Rev. Frederic

and Frederic spent liis boyhood m the house of Dr. George DoUnar, a layman, professor in the diocesan clerical seminary at Laibach.

In 1816 young Frederic Baraga entered the University of Vienna, studied law, and graduated in 1821, but soon turned his thoughts to the clerical state, and entered the seminar)- of Lai- bach that same year. He was ordained priest 21 September, 1823, at Laibach, and laboured T^ith great zeal and spir- itual success as as- sistant in St. Mar- tin's parish, near Krainburg, and at Metlika, in Lower Carniola. On the 29th of October, 1830, he left his native land for the United States to spend the rest of his life in the Indian missionary field. After a jour- ney of two months, ±i.^R.lG-^ he landed in New

York on the 31st of December, 1830. He then pro- ceeded to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he arrived IS Janu- arj', 1831. He was most kindlj' received by the Rt. Rev. Edward Fenwick, Bishop of Cincinnati, and during the winter and spring months laboured among the German Catholics of that citj' and else- where. On the 28th of May, 1831, he arrived at Arbre Croche, now Harbor Springs, his first Indian mission. There he laboured with apostolic zeal at the conversion of the Ottawas during two years and four months, dtu-ing which time he baptized 547 Indian adults and children. He was succeeded in 1833 by Rev. F. Saenderl, Superior of the Re- demptorists in the United States. On or about the 8th of September, 1833. Baraga left Arbre Croche to found a new Indian mission at Grand River, Mich. He arrived at his destination (now Grand Rapids, Mich.) on the 23d of September. He immediately began the building of a combination church, school, and pastoral residence, which was very poor, owing to the deficiency of funds. There he laboured most earnestly, though not as successfully as at Arbre Croche, until Februarj', 1835, when he was suc- ceeded by Father Andrew ^'iszoczky, a Hungarian priest. Baraga himself estimated the nimibcr of his converts at about two himdred, but Bisliop Rese estimated the number of Indian con^•erts in liis diocese in 1834 at three thousand, with twelve churches or chapels.

Baraga's next Indian mission was among the Chippewas at La Pointe, Wisconsin, where he arrived 27 July, 1835. There he laboured suc- cessfully for about eight years, baptizing 981 Indians and whites. In 1843 he founded the L'Anse Indian mission in Jlichigan, arriving there on the 24th of October. For ten years he laboured in this vast mission, being for many years the only Catholic priest in Upper Michigan. He attended not only to the Indians, but also to the whites of the vast territory, as the discover)- of iron and copper drew many German, French, and English-speaking Cath- olics to the Northern Peninsula of Michigan. Truly incredible are the hardships and labours of Baraga at this period of his life. On the 29th of July, 1853, the Northern Peninsula of Michigan was de- tached from the Diocese of Detroit and erected into a vicariate Apostolic, and Baraga was appointed its first bishop. He was consecrated in the cathedral