Open main menu

Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/346

This page needs to be proofread.


BARILLON


296


BARKWORTH


prescriptions of the patriarch concerning Hturgical points. All connexion was finally severed in the eleventh century, and Bari became a direct depend- ency of Rome. Archbishop Bisanzio (1025) ob- tained from the pope the privilege of consecrating his sutTragans; he also began the construction of the new cathedral, which was continvied by his successors, Nicolo (1035), Andrea (1062), and Elia (1089), the last-named a member of the Benedictine Order.

In 1097 some Bari sailors, on their return from the East, brought -n-ith them the relics of St. Nicholas, Bishop of Mira, for which Roger. Duke of Apulia, built a splendid church; this became the object of great veneration and of innumerable pilgrimages. About this time Urban II, being in Apulia, went to Bari to venerate the relics of the holy wonder- worker and to consecrate the basilica. Here also he held a council, attended by 183 bishops, to consider the reunion of the Greeks with the Church of Rome. St. Anselm of Canterbury distinguished himself at this council by his learned defence of the procession of the Holy Ghost and the use of unleavened bread for the Holy Eucliarist. Another council had been held at Bari in 1064, presided over by Arnoldo, Vicar of Alexander II. Of the later pro\-incial councils that of 1607 is worthy of mention. In the reorganization of the dioceses of the Kingdom of Naples, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Diocese of Bitetto was suppressed and made a part of the Dio- cese of Bari. The suffragan sees under Bari are: Conversano, Rufo, and Bitonto.

The most celebrated religious edifice of Bari is the church of San Nicolo, one of the most beautifiJ ex- amples of Norman architecture. It consists of an upper and a lower churcli, both richly adorned vdih precious marbles. The cathedral, dedicated to the Assumption, is like\\ise remarkable for the two high beU towers with which it is flanked.

The most celebrated Archbishops of Bari, in ad- dition to those already mentioned, are: Romualdo Grisoni (12S0), distinguished for his restorations of churches; Bartolomeo Prignano (1377), later Pope Urban VI, who, however, never saw this see; Ascanio Gesualdo (1613), who gave a wonderful example of charity in the earthqviake of 1632; Diego Sersale (163S), who at his o^\ti expense rebuilt the cathedral, the episcopal palace, and the seminary; the Domini- can Tommaso Maria, of the Dukes of Bagnara (1684), who died in the odour of sanctity.

The Diocese of Bari contains a population of 300,400. It contains 7 rural deaneries, 33 parishes, 260 churches, chapels, and oratories, 250 secular priests, 110 semi- narists, 30 regular clergj', 34 lay brothers, 200 mem- bers of female congregations, 45 schools for boys, 35 for girls.

Cappelletti, Le chiese d'ltalm (Venice, 1844), XXI; Annua- rio eccl. (Rome, 1906).

U. Benigni.

Barillon, Emile. SeeM.inccA, Diocese of.

Barjesus (Gr. BapiTjffoCs) , a false prophet found in the company of the Proconsul Sergius Paulus by St. Paul and Barnabas during their stay at Paphos in Cj^jrus (Acts, xiii, 6-12). Because of his opposition to the Proconsul's conversion to Christianity, Bar- jesus was struck blind by St. Paul. He was also called Elymos (Arab, 'alim, i. e. "wise"), which St. Luke translated by "magician" (Acts, xiii, 8). F. X. E. Albert.

Bar-Eepha, Moses, one of the most celebrated Jacobite bishops and â– nTiters of the ninth centurj', b. at Balad, about the year 813; d. at the age of ninety, in 903. A biography of him, wTitten by an anonymous SjTiac WTiter, is preserved in one of the Vatican manuscripts, extracts from which are given by Assemani in his "Bibliotheca Orientalis" (II,


218 sq.). He was a monk and afterwards became bishop of three cities, Beth-Ramman, Beth-Kionaya, and Mossoul on the Tigris, assuming the name of Severus. For ten years he was the patriarchal "Periodeutes", or visitor, of the Diocese of Tagrit, where, by his wise administration and learning, he acquired a great fame and reputation. He was buried in the monasterj' of St. Sergius, situated on the Tigris, near his native city.

The works of Moses Bar-Kepha are very numerous, and deal with many theological, philosophical, con- troversial, exegetical, and hturgical subjects. The principal are: (1) A Commentary on the Old and New Testaments, often quoted by Bar Hebraeus, and most of it still extant in manuscript form; (2) a treatise on predestinatiorj and free will, preserved in a MS. in the British Museum (Add. 14,731); (3) a commentary on Aristotle's "Dialectics", mentioned by Bar Hebripus; (4) a commentarj-on the Hexameron in five books, preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris (Sjt. 241), a passage of which is translated into French by Abb6 Nau in his " Bardfeane I'astro- logue" (Paris, 1899), p. 59; (5) a "Tractatus de Para- dise", in three parts, dedicated to his friend Ignatius. [The SjTiac original of this work is lost, but a Latin version of it was published by Masius (Antwerp, 1569) under the title "De Paradiso Commentarius".] (6) A treatise on the soul, in forty chapters, T\ith a supplementary essay on the utility of offering prayers and sacrifices for the dead. [This treatise is pre- served in the Vatican Librarj'; a German transla- tion of it is given by O, Braun in his "Moses Bar- Kepha und sein Buch von der Seele" (Freiburg, 1891).] (7) A "Tractatus de sectis", or, "Liber dis- putationum adversus ha-reses" (see Assemani, B. O. II, 57); (8) a treatise on the Sacraments; (9) a com- mentary on the Liturg}'; (10) an ecclesiastical his- torj'. His other works comprise discourses, homilies, and a commentary on the wTitings of St. Gregory Nazianzen.

Braun, Moses Bar-Kepha; Bar Hebrj:us, Ckronuon Eccle- siasticum, ed. Lamy (Louvain, 1872-77). I, 394-395; II, 217; Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientally. II, 218 sqq.: Wright. .4 Short History of Syriac Literature (London. 1894), 207-211; Kirchenlex.. s. v.; Duval. La Litterature Si/riaque (Paris. 1907), 391-392.

Gabriel Orss.\Ni.

Barkworth (alias L.wibert), M.\rk, Vener.^ble, priest and martjT, b. about 1572, in Lincolnshire; executed at Tyburn 27 February, 1601; he was edu- cated at Oxford, and converted to the Faith at Douai in 1594, by Father George, a Flemish Jesuit. In 1596 Barkworth went to Rome and thence to Valla- dolid. On his way to Spain he is said to have had a vision of St. Benedict, who told him he would die a martjT, in the Benedictine habit. Admitted to the English College, 16 December, 1.596, he was ordained priest in 1599, and set out for the English Mission together with Vcn. Thomas Garnet. On his way he stayed at the Benedictine Abbey of Hyrache in Navarre, wliere his ardent wish to join the order was granted by his being made an Oblate with the pri\-i- lege of making profession at the hour of death. After having escaped great peril at the hands of the here- tics of La Rochelle, he was arrested on reaching England and thrown into Newgate, where he lay six months, and was then transferred to Bridewell. Here he "OTOte an appeal to Cecil, signed "George Barkworth". At his examinations he behaved with extraordinary fearlessness and frank gaiety. Ha\-ing been condemned he was thrown into "Limbo", the horrible underground dungeon at Newgate, where he remained "very cheerful till his death.

Barkworth suffered at Tyburn with Ven. Roger Filcock. S.J., and Ven. Anne Lyne. It was the first Tuesday in Lent, a bitterly cold day. He sang, on the way to Tyburn, the Paschal Anthem: "Haec dies quam fecit Dominus exultemus et laetemur in ea".