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BAROCCIO


303


BARON


duction to_ those of Baronius; in liturgiology by Gavantus; in archseology by Caronni, whose work re- ceives praise in Eckel's "Doctrina nummorum vet- erura"; Cortenova, who illustrated the antiquities of Friuli and Aquileia; Delle Torre, who restored the Forum Jiilii of Cividale; Ungarelli the Egj-ptologist, friend of Champollion and Rosellini, and interpreter of the Roman obelisk; and Benzi, who elucidated the inscription of Vercelli. Among the names of Barna- bites who have been eminent in philosophy are those of Baranzano, the friend of Gahleo and of Francis Bacon, who communicated to him first the theory of the "Novum Organum, of Cardinal Gerdil, and of Pini, the author of "Protologia"; among those eminent in physical and mathematical science, Frisi, Cavallezi, Denza, founder of the ItaHan Meteorologi- cal Society and first director of the Vatican Observa- tory, and Bertelli, the seismologist. To the Barnabite architect Binaghi is due the restoration of the Escorial towards the close of the sixteenth century, whilst the Barnabite Mazenta was the architect both of the Cathedral of Bologna and of the fortifications of Leghorn. To these names might be added those of many Barnabites who have become famous in litera- ture, and the order has given to the Catholic Church more than fifty bishops and these six members of the Sacred College: Caddini, Fontana, Gerdil, Lam- bruscliini, Bilio, and Graziello.

In 1856 Count Schouvaloff, a distinguished Russian convert, joined the Barnabite Congregation, and died in 1859. It was his ardent desire that his brethren might do something for the reunion of Christendom. With this object the order has founded an Association of Masses, and by the Brief "Aposi- tum super Nobis", dated 30 April, 1872, Pius IX granted a plenary indulgence to all who should assist at the Mass for the reunion of Christendom to be celebrated once a month in the Chapel of the Barna- bites at Paris. His Holiness, moreover, granted to the general of the order faculties for extending the like pri\'ilege to any other church in which a monthly Mass for the same intention should be said upon the day appointed by the ordinary. This privilege is freely extended by the general to all bishops who may desire it.

Sicco AND Mosio, De Cleric. Reg. S. Pauli Cong, et Parenti- bu8 ^ynop.'ita CMilan. 1682); Barelli, Mvmorie delV origine . . . deUa Cnngregazione dei Chierici Reg. . , . Bamahili (Bologna, 1703-07); Conslitutumes Cleric. Reg. S. Pauli Decol- lali (M.Ian. 1579; Milan, 1617; Naples, .1829); Grazioli, Pneetintium virorum qui in Congregatione S. Pauli vulgo Bamabitarum memorid nostra fioruerunt (Bologna, 1751); Ungarelli, Bibliotheca .Icripl. e Cong. Cleric. Reg. S. Pauli (Rome. 1830); Gabuzio, Hist. Cong. Cleric. Reg. S. Pauli (Rome, 1852): Colombo, Profili biografici di insigni Bamabiti (Lodi, 1871).

Ces. Tondixi di Quarenghi.

Baroccio (B.-iHorci), Federigo, called Fiore d'Ur- bino, a distinguished painter and engraver, b. at Ur- bino, 1528; d. at the same place, 30 September, 1612. His father, who was Anibrogio Baroccio, a sculptor, of a Milanese family, gave him his first art lessons. He then studied drawing with Francesco Manzocchi of Forli. His uncle, the architect Bartolommeo Genga. deciding that Federigo must become an ar- tist, placed him with the eminent Venetian painter, Battista Franco, then in the service of Duke Guido- baldo II at Urbino. On Franco's departure Baroccio went to his uncle's house at Pesaro, and while study- ing [perspective with him, copied some pictures of Titian in the ducal gallery. When twenty he went to Rome and spent his time chiefly in the study of the works of his great townsman, Raphael. On his return to Urbino, Baroccio copied the pastels of Correggio, and painted some pictures which brought him much reputation. His subjects were chiefly reHgious, and included some large altar- pieces. Of these he etched two masterpieces, "The Pardon of San Francesco d'Assisi", which is


at Urbino, and "The Annunciation", which is at Loretto.

Returning to Rome, where Guido della Rovere was one of his patrons, the artist, together with Federigo Zuccaro, recei\-ed from Pope Pius IV the cominission to decorate the little palace of the Bosco di Belvedere in the Vatican. At this time it is said that he was poisoned at a banquet given him by some painters jealous of his success. From this he never recovered, for four years was unable to work at all, and for the rest of "his life but a few hours a day. After three years at Perugia , and a short ^^sit to Florence, Baroccio returned to end his long life of eighty-four years at Urbino, dying of apoplexy. In the Lou\Te are his "Qrcumcision", "The Virgin and Child Jesus adored by St. Anthony and St. Lucy", and "St. Catherine"; in the London National Gallery a "Holy Family"; at Urbino a "Last Supper" and "St. Sebastian; at the cathedral in Perugia a "Descent from the Cross"; at Ravenna "The Martyrdom of St. Vitalis"; at Naples a "Holy Family"; and at Rome a "Last Supper" and "Christ and Magdalen".

Brtan. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers (London and New York, 1903-05).

Augustus van Cleef.

Barocco style (Fr. baroque), a debased application to architecture of Renaissance features. The term is also employed to denote a bad taste in design and or- nament generally. Carlo Madema (1556-1639), Ber- nini (.1598-1680), and Borromini (1599-1667), were among the more famous who practised tliis form of art. Among the most prominent examples are the churches of Santa Maria della Vittoria by Madema, and Santa Agnese, by Borromini, both at Rome. Naples particularly is full of baroque churches, a few of which, like the GesCi Nuovo, are dignified and creditable designs. The domical chiu-ch of Santa Maria della Salute, at Venice, by Longhena, is a majestic edifice in excellent style, and here and there other churches offer exceptions to the then preva- lent baseness of architecture. The three Venetian churches, San Bamaba (1749), San Basso (1670), and San Moise, are examples of three ditTerent types of the baroque. Tliis style prevailed in church architecture for nearly two centuries. See Rex.^is- s.u^cE. Tho.mas H. Poole.

Baron, Box.wentura, a distinguished Irish Fran- ciscan theologian, philosopher, and writer of Latin prose and verse, b. at Clonmel, County Tipperarj', Ireland, 1610; d. at Rome, IS March, 1696. His mother was a sister of the well-known Franciscan, Luke Wadding, and his brother Geoffrey was a trusted ambassador of the Irish Confederates in their negotiations with the continental rulers. He himself joined the Franciscan community of Clonmel, pur- sued his studies in philosophy at Lou\-ain, and after- wards proceeded to Rome, where he took up his residence in the Irish College of St. Isidore founded by his uncle, Father Wadding. Here, on the com- pletion of his theological course, he was appointed professor, and devoted himself specially to a defence of the Scotist system then generally assailed. During his stay in Rome he pubhshed numerous works on theologj', philosophy, and history, a full list of which is appended below. About the year J651 he left Rome, owing, it is said, to some difficidty with the master of tne sacred palace, and went first to a house of his order at Schwaz in the Tyrol, and then to Salzburg, where he was kindly recei\ed by Arch- bishop Guidobald. He was sent as provincial com- missary into Hungarj' (about 16,56), was again in Schwaz (1661), went to Paris, taught for some time at Wurzburg, where he published a volume of his "Opuscula" (1668), taught theology at Lyons, and finally returned to Italy It is said that representa- tions were made to secure his appointment to (he