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BASILIDES


329


BASIL


Mead, Fragments of a Faith Forgotten (London and Benares, 1900); HoRT in Dict^ Christ. Biog., I, 268-281; Mansel, Gnostic Heresies; de Groot, Basilides als erster Zeuge fur das N. T. (Leipzig, 1868); Uhlhorn, Das BasUidianische System (Gottingen, 1855). j p Arexdzex.

Basilides. — JlartjTs bearing the name of Ba- silides are mentioned in the old martjTologies on three different days, namely, on 10, 12, and 28 June. Under the last date is placed the long list of Alex- andrian martjTS who suffered during the persecution of Septimius Severus, and among these occurs the name of a Basilides. Eusebius gives an entire chap- ter of his church historj' (Vl, v) to Basilides and Potamiana. After Potamiana had been sentenced to death Basilides, an officer of the court, led her to execution. He showed himself compassionate to Potamiana and kept back the heathen rabble who would have mocked her. Potamiana thanked him and exhorted him to be consoled, for after her death she would entreat the Lord concerning him and would reward his kindness. Shortly after this Ba- silides was called on to take an oath. He replied that he could not swear, and openly acknowledged himself to be a Cliristian. When taken before the judge he made an unwavering confession and was thrown into prison. He was visited by several Christians to whom he related that, three days after her martyrdom, Potamiana had appeared to him and had set a crown on his head with the assurance that the Lord would soon take Basilides to Himself. Basilides was then baptized and the next day he was beheaded. In the present Roman martyrology his name appears on 30 June. In the so-called mar- tyrology of St. Jerome and in the present list of Roman martyrs the name of a Basilides appears on 10 and 12 June. On each occasion the name is ac- companied by a statement of the locality of the martjTdom at Rome on the Via Aurelia. The names of the companions in martjTdom of Basilides vary on the two different days. The list for 12 June is very involved; apparently the same martyr is referred to on both days and for some reason his name is re- peated on 12 June. The .\cts of the marijTdom of a Roman Basilides are still in existence; they have, however, no historical existence and belong to a date considerably later.

EcSEBnjs, Hist. ecct. (Turin. 1746\ VI, v, ed. Valesius, I, 228; Martyrol. Hieronym., ed. De Rossi and Duchesne in Acta SS., November. II, 77; Mombritius. Sancluarium (Venice. 1474): Acta SS.. Junii, II, 508 sqq., 355 sqq.; .^l.\rd, Hist. des persecutions (Paris, 1866), II, 76 sqq.

J. P. KiKSCH.

Basilides, Gospel AccoRDi.ve; tu. See Basilides (Gnostic).

Basilinopolis, a titular see of Asia Minor. Origi- nally a small village in Bithj-nia Prima, it obtained the rank of a citv under, or perhaps shortly before, Julian the Apostate (Mansi, VH, 305). The first known bishop, Alexander, was consecrated by St. John Chrysostom about 400. Other bishops are Gerontius (451), Cyriacus (518), Sisinnius (680), Georgius (787), and Anthimus in 878 (Lequien, Or. Chr., I, 623-625). At Chalcedon (451) the see had been the object of a sharp contest between the metropolitans of Nicomedia and Nica?a about juris- diction. Basilinopolis was finally made by the council a suffragan of Nicomedia (Mansi, ibid., 301- 314); and it remained so until about 1170 under Manuel Comnenus (Hierocles, SjTiecdemos, ed. Parthey, 169). The .see does not figure in a "Notitia episcopatuum" of the fifteenth centurj', the city doubtless having been destroyed by the Osmanli. Its exact site is not known. According to W. M. Ramsay (Hist. Geogr. of Asia Minor, 179), it was probably situated on the western side of the Lake of Nicsea (Isnik-Ghueul), near Bazar-Keui, between Kios (Ghemlek) and Niciea (Isnik).

LEQUIE.N, Oriens Christ., I, 623-626. g VaILHB.


Basilissa. — Various female martyrs, attributed to different localities yet bearing the common name of Basilissa, are referred to in all the catalogues of martjTs both of early Christianity and of the Middle Ages; their names also appear in the calendars and liturgical books of the Greek and Roman Churches. Nothing is kno^\^l positively as to any one of these sufferers for the Christian Faith; the Acts of their martjTdoms, so far as such exist, are purely legendary and originated at a later date. The fact, however, that the name occurs several times in the so-called niartjTologj' of St. Jerome and in old Gr^ek cata- logues is certain proof that a number of female niartjTS named Basilissa were actually venerated in the ancient Church. At the same time it is not im- possible that the same martjT is recorded on differ- ent days. Among these saints should be mentioned: Julian and Basilissa of Antioch; in the martyrology of St. Jerome (ed. Rossi-Duchesne, 6) they are given as martjTS untler 6 Januarj'. A later legend makes Basilissa the virgin wife of Julian and narrates that she died a natural death together with other virgins, while Julian suffered martyrdom in company with many other Christians during the Diocletian persecu- tion. The same martyrology makes mention, under

12 March, of a female martyr Basilissa, wife of Felicio, and states the locality "in Asia". On the next day,

13 March, occurs the name of another martjT called Basili-ssa, wife of the presbi,-ter Eustacius of Nico- media. Later legends, which were accepted by the Greek menologies and synaxaria, speak of a virgin and martyr, Basilissa of Nicomedia, whose feast was celebrated on 3 September; this Basilissa is probably identical with the one just mentioned. On 22 March the names of two martjTS, Basilissa and Callinice, are given with the statement "in Galatia ". Under 16 .\pril the old catalogues contain the names of a number of martyrs of Corinth, among whom appears a Basilissa; according to later accounts these sufferers for the Faith were all thrown into the sea. Under the pre\nous day, 15 April, two Roman matrons, Basilissa and Anastasia, are recorded; they apparently died in the persecution of Nero. Another female martyr of Rome, whose name is sometimes written Basilla and sometimes Basilissa, was venerated on 20 May. She was buried, it is stated, on the Via Salaria. The celebrated Roman martyr Basilla, who died in 304 and whose feast is entered from the year 354 under 22 September in the oldest known Roman catalogue of feasts (Deposit io martyrum), was buried in the catacomb of Hermes on the Via Salaria Vetus. It is, therefore, a question whether the saint given under 20 May and this latter Basilla are not one and the same person; but the identity of the two cannot be positively affirmed. The present martj-rology in- cludes several of these saints; 9 January, Basilissa of Antioch; 22 March, Basilissa and Callinice; 15 April, Basilissa and Anastasia; 3 September, Basilissa of Nicomedia.

For Basili-ssa of Antioch and her companions. Acta SS.. January, I. 570 sqq.. and Mombritius, Sanctuarium, I, 216 sqq.: 11. 45 sqq. For Basilissa and Anastasia, Acta SS., .^pril, II, 372. For Basilissa and Callinice, Ibid.. March. Ill, 277. For Basilissa of Nicomedia. Ibid., September, I, 609 sqq. J. P. KlRSCH.

Basilissa (Wife of Julian). See Julian and

B.4.S1L1SSA.

Basil of Amasea (B.\sileus or Basilius), Bishop and MartjT. In St. Jerome's Latin version of the Clironicle of Eusebius the statement occurs under the 275th Olympiad (a. d. 321-324) that Basileus, Bishop of Amasea in Pontus, suffered martyrdom in the reign of Licinius [ed. Schone (Berlin, 1875), 191]. There is no rea.son for doubting the trustworthiness of this information. .A-mong the signatures of the bishops who attended the C'ouncils of Ancyra and Neo-CiEsarea (314) is to be foimd the name of Basileus