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works on the subject of theology: "R^ponse au m^moire et a la consultation de M. Linguet, touchant 1 'indissolubility du manage" (Paris, 1772); "Les entretiens du pape Ganganelli" (Clement XIV) (Antwerp, 1777); " Voltairimeros, ou premiere journ^e de M. de Voltaire dans I'autre monde" (Brussels, 1779). During the Revolution he wTote many pamphlets against the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and his book "Doctrine catholique siir le mariage" (1791) was published about the same time. During his exile in Kosfeld he began his "M^moires", edited lately by the Soci6t6 d'histoire contenipo- raine (3 vols., Paris, 1897-99). In his last years he wrote "Reclamation pour I'Eglise de France et pour la v^rit^ contre I'ouvrage de M. le comte de Maistre [Du Pape]" (Rouen, 1821); "Antidote contre les erreurs et la reputation de I'Essai sur I'indiff^rence en matiere de religion" (Paris, 1823); "Concordance des lois civiles et des lois eccl^siastiques touchant le mariage" (Paris, 1824).

Menwires de t'Abbe Boston, ed. Loth and Verger (Paris, 1897): HuRTER. Nomenclator (Innsbruck, 1895), III; Bellamy in Diet, de thiol, calh., s. v.

G. M. Saxjvage.

Basutoland, Prefecture Apostolic of. — Basu- toland, a mountainous district of South Africa, is bounded on the north and west by the Orange River Colony, on the east by Natal, and on the south by Cape Colony. It has an area of 10,293 square miles. The white population is about 700 and natives number about 309,000. The chief town is Maseru. The county is administered by native chiefs under an act- ing British Resident Commissioner who meets the Na- tional Assembly or "Pitso" in council once a year. Whites require special permission to settle in the coun- try. The climate is healthful, though cold in winter, while the summer is characterized by hea\'y rains. The country has no railway nor roads properly so called. Basutoland was annexed to Cape Colony in 1871, and became a British Crown Colony in 1884. The inhabitants, till about 1820, were Bushmen of a low type but they have been replaced by highly in- telligent Kafirs. The principal articles of export are wheat, meaUes, and wool, Kafir com, mohair, and cattle.

Basutoland, first a part of the Vicariate Apostolic of Natal, and later of the Vicariate of Kimberley, was made an independent prefecture by the Holy See on 8 May, 1894. It comprises the whole of the territory known as Basutoland. The first prefect Apostolic of the new ecclesiastical territory was the Rev. Father Monginoux. O.M.I. ; he was succeeded by the Rev. Father Baudiy, O.M.I., and the latter by the Rev. Father Cenez, 0!M.I. The Oblates of Mary Immaculate established themselves in that portion of South Africa about 1862. Roma, the first Catholic mission in Basutoland, was founded by the Right Rev. Dr. AUard, O.M.I. , in 1862. The'first church was built in the same year. The second mission situated about six miles from Roma was founded in 1867 and received the name of St. Michael. Since then, several new missions have been established in different parts of the territory. The prefecture pos- sesses at present 19 churches, chapels, and stations, convents, and 9 schools. The missionary work is carried on by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate as- sisted by the Sisters of the Holy Family. The total number of Oblate Fathers in Basutoland is at present 19; lay brothers, 6; European Sisters, 34; native Sisters, 12; total number of CathoUcs, about 8,900; catechumens, 700; children attending school, about 1,200.

Undoubtedly Christianity has progressed im- mensely during recent years in Basutoland, and it would have spread still more speedily had the re- sources been more abundant. Unfortunately, there, as elsewhere in South Africa, everything seems to be

precarious. Agriculture is too often compromised by long droughts, and crops are sometimes destroyed by locusts, all of which bring on misery and famines. In addition to this the Hmited number of priests does not allow the evangelization of the country to be carried out on a very large scale. The population, however, is well settled, which greatly facilitates the work of the missionary, who can remain always in touch with his flock.

Barkley, .AmoTig Boers and Basuios (London. 1900 1; WiDoicOMBE. Fourteen Years in Basutoland (London, 189J i; Missiones Catholicee (Propaganda, Rome, 1907), 431.


Batavia, Vic.4.ri.\te Apostolic of. — When the Portuguese took possession of the island of Java, of which Batavia is the capital, they brought the Christian religion with them; but the Dutch, having conquered Java in 1596, set about the destruction of Catholicism. Nevertheless, the memory has been preserved of a Friar Minor who was expelled from Batavia in 1721, and attempted to continue his apostolic labours in China. It was with difficulty that a priest could enter Java, and, if recognized, he was hunted out. When in 1807 Louis Napoleon became King of Holland, Pius VII divided all the Dutch territory outside of Europe into three pre- fectures, two in the West Indies and the third, with Batavia for its seat, in the East Indies. At this period the Dutch missionaries James Nelissen and Lambert Preffen set out for the Sunda Islands, and reached Batavia, 4 April, 1808. The Government gave them at first a ruinous Cah-inist place of worship, and then added to this act of generosity sufficiently to enable them to erect a church, which was blessed, under the title of Our Lady of the Assumption, 6 No- vember, 1829. Nelissen died 6 December, 1817, and Preffen succeeded him in this prefecture.

On the 20th of September, 1842, Gregorj- XVI raised the Prefecture of Batavia to a vicariate Apos- tolic, and Monsignor Groof, titular Bishop of Canea, and previously prefect Apostolic of Surinam, became the first ^^ca^ Apostolic. A coadjutor was given him, 4 June, 1847, in Monseigneur Pierre-Marie Vrancken, titular Bishop of Colophon, who succeeded him in 1852. The Dutch Government, however, did not leave the first missionaries in peace, and Monsignor Ciroof, together with Father Van den Brand, a mis- sionary priest, was expelled. Monsignor Vrancken died in 1874, and Pius IX then entrusted the mission of Bata\-ia to the Dutch Jesuits. The first Jesuit vicar Apostolic was Monsignor Claessens (1874-93), who was succeeded by Monsignor Staal (1894-97) and Monsignor Luypen, the present (1907) incumbent of the office. The Jesuits energetically set about the development of the mission, which then comprised the islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Sunda group, Timor, the Celebes, and the Moluccas.

In 1851 the Catholics in the vicariate numbered between 5000 and 6000; in 1879 there were 23,527, not including the Catholic members of the garrison, and 27 missionaries were labouring in different parts of the Sunda Islands. Although the whole island of Borneo and Dutch New Guinea have since been separated from the vicariate, Streit's "Atlas des missions" now- gives the following statistics: Total population of the vicariate, 37,325,000; native Christians, 27,313 (in addition to 25,000 European Catholics); 720 catechumens; 54 religious in priest's orders; 40 male religious not priests; 250 Sisters of different orders; 94 catechists; 22 principal stations: 78 secondary stations; 40 churches, and 59 schools with 2482 pupils.

Pius IX had separated the British portions of the islands of Borneo and Labuan from the \'icariate in 1855; in 1903 Leo XIII erected Dutch New Guinea into a new prefecture; and Pius X, in 1905, formed a prefecture out of the remainder of the island of